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8. Palatinae domus, etc.: the house of Hortensius destroyed by fire in 2 A.D.; cf. Aug. 72. 1. It was rebuilt, apparently on a larger scale. Dio (-Xiph.) says (LV. 12. 5): · But when Augustus had built the house, he devoted it entirely to public use, whether, indeed, because of the contribution which had been made him by the people or actually because he was pontifex maximus, in order to dwell at once in what was private and public property.'

9. decuriae : whether these were tribal subdivisions or guilds of the minor officials seems still to be matter of uncertainty.

11. delibante : took a little from; with acervos as object.

12. plus denario: Dio (-Xiph. LV. 12. 4) says Augustus took only one denarius (• drachma ’in the Greek), about sixteen cents, from each individual and one aureus, of the value of twenty-five denarii, from the states.

13. faustis ominibus : congratulations and best wishes; cf. Claud. 27. 2, Britannicum ... faustisque ominibus ... prosequebatur.

14. modulatis carminibus : strains of songs; cf. Calig. 16. 4, pueris ac puellis carmine modulato laudes virtutum eius canentibus. Observatum etiam est: they took care, too. The day of his entrance into the city in 29 B.C. was declared sacred and was given over to sacrifices ; cf. Dio LI. 20. 3.

Chapter 58. Augustus Receives the Title, “Pater Patriae'

17. Patris patriae cognomen : this title had been previously applied to Augustus, but was first officially recognized in 2 B.C.; cf. Dio LV. 10. 10. Augustus himself states (M. A. XXXV. 6. 24 ff.): Tertium decimum consulatum cum gerebam, senatus et equester ordo populusque Romanus universus appellavit me patrem patriae. It was a complimentary designation, not necessary to the powers of the principate. The title had been decreed to Julius Caesar a short time before his death ; cf. Liv., Epit. CXVI. As applied to Cicero, the title had a different connotation ; cf. Cic., in Pis. 3. 6 ; Plut., Cic. XXIII. Tiberius declined it altogether and it was not borne by the transitory emperors, Galba, Otho and Vitellius ; cf. Tib. 26. 2, 67. 2. See Mommsen, Röm Staatsr. 113. 779 f.

18. Antium : modern Anzio, on the coast thirty-seven miles by rail southeast of Rome, the site of extensive villas in later republican times and the birthplace of Caligula and Nero ; cf. Calig. 8. 2 ; Ner. 6. 1.

19. spectacula : the theater; lit. seats of the spectators.

21. (M.) Valerium Messalam (Corvinum) : pardoned by the triumvirs, he became one of the chief generals and friends of Augustus ; con

sul in 31 B.C., proconsul of Aquitania in 28-27 B.C. ; a patron of learning, himself a writer and orator, a friend of Horace and Tibullus.

22. Quod bonum, etc. : may good fortune and the blessing of heaven attend thee and thy house.

25. huic : sc. urbi.
29. Compos factus, etc. : see note to page 62, line 17.

Chapter 59. Augustus Cured by Musa Page 81. 1. Antonio Musae : Musa was the means of restoring Augustus to health in 23 B.C., when the emperor's life was despaired of, by the use of cold baths and cooling drinks. He failed in the same treatment of Marcellus, however, who died a few months after Augustus's recovery ; cf. Dio LIII. 30. 3 f. Horace (Ep. I. 15. 3 ff.) alludes to the same mode of treatment.

2. aere conlato : money contributed, contributions of money. signum Aesculapi : a statue of Aesculapius, god of the medical art, was found in the excavations near the lacus Iuturnae ; see Platner, Anc. Rome?, 219. Pliny (N. H. XXXIV. 8. 80) mentions such a statue in the temple of Concord, also in the Forum.

3. patrum familiarum : the pater familias was master of the house and head of the family and had absolute authority over his children. He alone had the right to dispose of the family property by mortgage, sale, or will. Familia here means 'property ’, estate': owners of property.

4. praelato titulo : bearing a placard before them, to indicate the nature of the sacrifice.

8. super : = praeter; see Introd. II. § 5. r. (2). (c). templa et aras : see Aug. 52 and notes to page 77, lines 19 f. For the worship of the emperor in the provinces see Marquardt, Röm. Staatsv. III2. 463 f.

9. ludos quoque quinquennales : these games, modeled after the Greek contests, had been established at Rome in 30 B.C: ; cf. Dio LI. 19. 2. There were also similar ludi in his honor at Pergamum, at Caesarea, and at Naples ; cf. Dio LI. 20. 9, LV. 10. 9 ; Jos., Ant. Jud. XVI. 5. 1. oppidatim : see note to page 75, line 31, provinciatim. This adverb is quoted for only one other passage, and that in Suetonius : Galb. 18, Cum

oppidatim victimae caederentur. Cf. Introd. II. § 1. f.

Chapter 60. Honors from Allied Kings 12. Caesareas urbes : among these was Caesarea in Samaria, on the coast, formerly called Turris Stratonis, but rebuilt and renamed by Hered

in honor of Augustus. Caesarea in Mauretania Caesariensis was so renamed by Juba. Caesarea Philippi, in northern Palestine, received its name in honor of Tiberius, while Caesarea ad Argaeum, in Cappadocia, was not so named till Tiberius's time. aedem Iovis Olympii : the colossal temple of Olympian Zeus was begun by Peisistratus and completed by Hadrian a short time before the visit to Athens of Pausanias, who describes (I. 18. 6) its wonderful construction. Antiochus Epiphanes planned its completion, but the work was stopped by his death in 164 B.C. What was done by the foreign potentates in honor of Augustus is not known. See Gardner, Anc. Athens, 486-8, 493, 498–9, 527.

14. Genio : the Genius of a person was his tutelary spirit, his creative principle, closely identified with him in life and living on in his Lar after death. Under the empire the Genius of Augustus and the Genius of the reigning emperor were publicly worshipped at the same time.

16. cotidiana officia : see note to page 61, line 21. togati, etc. : thus acknowledging that they were Romans and subjects; cf. M. A. XXXII, 5. 54 ff. insigni : see note to page 67, line 12.

Chapter 61. Domestic Life. Deaths of Atia and Octavia 18. imperis ac magistratibus : military and civil offices. 21. inter suos : see Introd. II. § 5. l. (1).

22. egerit := vixerit ; cf. Tac., Ann. III. 19. 2, apud illos homines qui tum agebant; Sall., Jug. 55. 2, civitas ... laeta agere.

23. Matrem amisit : in 43 B.C., following upon his return from Mutina in August of that year. Both Atia and Octavia had been concealed in the house of the Vestals during his absence from Rome ; cf. App., B.C. III. 92. 380. Dio (XLVII. 17. 6) records the public funeral granted Atia. Octaviam : see note to page 47, line 27. Note that the date of her death was 11 B.C., not 9 B.C. as stated by Suetonius.

25. praecipua officia : marked courtesies.

26. defunctae honores, etc. : as we have seen, Atia was honored with a public funeral. Augustus himself delivered the funeral oration over Octavia ; cf. Dio LIV. 35. 5.

.

Chapter 62. Augustus's Marriages 27. Sponsam : see note to page 78, line 17. Repudium was used of breaking such a betrothal compact; cf. Plaut., Aul. 783 : Is me nunc renuntiare repudium iussit tibi, together with the response (784): Repudium

ex

rebus paratis exornatis nuptiis ? P. Servili Isaurici: P. Servilius Vatia, who inherited the cognomen Isauricus from the conqueror of the Isaurian pirates, was consul with Julius Caesar in 48 B.C. and propraetor of Asia in 46 B. C. After Caesar's death in 44 B.c. he at first opposed Antony, but soon became reconciled to him through Octavian's good offices and was again consul in 41 B.C., with Lucius Antonius as his colleague (note to page 52, line 25), possibly as compensation for the repudiation of Servilia. He was inactive when his colleague stirred up the war at Perusia. See Tyrrell and Purser, Corresp. of Cicero, IV, Introd., LXXXf.

28. reconciliatus . . . Antonio : see note to page 54, line 24. postulantibus utriusque militibus : Dio (XLVI. 56. 3) adds : “ And Antony evidently instigated it.'

30. Fulviae : after the assassination of her first husband, P. Clodius, Cicero's enemy, in 52 B.C., she was again married, in 49 B.C., to Gaius Curio, who was killed during that year while on an African campaign. Her marriage to Mark Antony occurred about the year 46 B.C. After Perusia she fled to Athens, where she was met by Antony and ill treated by him. She afterwards died at Sicyon, where he had left her on their way to Italy. Cf. App., B. C. V. 52. 217, 55. 230; Dio XLVIII. 28. 2 f., and see note to page 52, line 26.

31. simultate cum Fulvia, etc. : Dio has this to say (XLVIII. 5. 3): • For Caesar could not endure his mother-in-law's ill temper (for he wished it to be thought that his quarrel was with her rather than with Antony) and dismissed her daughter with the assurance that she was still a maiden ; a statement which he confirmed by an oath.' The occurrences leading up to Perusia are sufficient to explain the quarrel with Fulvia, particularly when her imperious nature is considered. Cf. Dio XLVIII. 5. 1 ff.

Page 82. 1. Scriboniam : Scribonia had two children by P. Cornelius Scipio; a daughter, Cornelia, and a son, a consul of the year 16 B.C.

She was a sister of L. Scribonius Libo, the father-in-law of Sextus Pompeius. On the advice of Maecenas, Augustus married her in 40 s.c. in order to forestall a coalition between Antony and Sextus Pompeius. It was purely a political marriage. Octavian, having renewed his alliance with Antony, divorced her the following year, 39 B.C., on the very day she had borne him a daughter, Julia. Dio (XLVIII. 34. 3) says that the real reason for the divorce was his love for Livia. Scribonia lived to accompany her daughter to Pandataria in 2 B.C. Cf. Dio XLVIII. 16. 3 ; App., B. C. V. 53. 221 f.

3. pertaesus, etc. : utterly disgusted with the shrewishness of her disposition. Pertaesus with the accusative is cited only for Suetonius; cf. page 4, line 1, pertaesus ignaviam suam; Tib. 67. 1, semet ipse pertaesus. The simple taesus is not so used. See Introd. II. $ 4. n. ut scribit : see Introd. II. $ 7. a.

4. Liviam Drusillam : daughter of Livius Drusus Claudianus, a woman of noble descent and possessed of youth and beauty when she married Augustus at the age of twenty, in 38 B.C. She had fled with her husband, Tiberius Claudius Nero, and the young Tiberius (born November 16, 42 B.c.) in 40 B.C., but returned to Rome after the peace of Misenum, 39 B.C. ; cf. Dio XLVIII. 15. 3 f. ; Tac., Ann. V. 1. 2. Her

Drusus, was born three months after her marriage to Augustus. Her former husband gave her in marriage, Dio says (XLVIII. 44. 3), • like any father'. Dio (LVIII. 2. 4 f.) quotes some of her terse sayings with evident approval when mentioning the honors accorded her at her death in 29 A.D. Tacitus (Ann. I. 10. 4) characterizes her as gravis in rem publicam mater, gravis domui Caesarum noverca ; the latter epithet referring to the popular belief that she caused the deaths of her son's rivals, Gaius and Lucius ; cf. Dio LV. 10 a. 10.

6. dilexitque et probavit, etc. : loved and esteemed her with constancy and singleness of heart.

second son,

Chapter 63. Julia, Daughter of Augustus and Scribonia

8. nihil liberorum : cf. note to page 72, line 17. See Introd. II. $ 4. e.

10. Marcello ; son of Octavia and M. Claudius Marcellus. He was born in 43 B.C., and his birth was heralded by Vergil in Aeneid, VI. 860– 886. He died in 23 B.C., soon after Augustus had recovered from his serious illness of that year ; cf. Dio LIII. 30. 4 ff. It is in this connection that Dio (LIII. 33. 4) refers to the suspicion attaching to Livia. The marriage of Marcellus and Julia apparently occurred in 25 B.C. ; cf. Dio LIII. 27. 5.

11. tantum quod pueritiam egresso : when he had just passed from boyhood. Tantum quod is used again of proximity in time on page 104, line 11, quae tantum quod appulerat, and in Ner. 6. 1, tantum quod exoriente sole. For the case of pueritiam see Introd. II. § 4. m.

12. exorata sorore, etc. : prevailing on his sister to give up her sonin-law to him. Genero is an ablative after cederet; cf. page 35, lines 20 ff., Gaio Oppio ... deversoriolo ... cesserit ; Cic., de Off. II. 23. 82,

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