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to have generated the form in -ed. Thus, for example, it is open to any one to maintain that patterned in the following quotation is a participle, and that it implies a verb to pattern. But to me it appears simpler to class it as an adjective in -ed, formed upon the noun pattern.

“Professor Rawlinson tells us that, among the Persians, dresses were not often patterned, but depended generally for their effect on make and uniform colour only.’—William Ewart Gladstone, juventus Mundi, p. 140.

As to the word gifted in the next quotation, I would not undertake to pronounce whether it is the -ed participial or the -ed adjectival.

“The gear that is gifted, it never Will last like the gear that is won.” Joanna Baillie. A different use and of another flavour is when we hear of a gifted or talented man—expressions both of them which Savour a little of affectation.


“Was it true that the legislative Chambers which were paid performed their duties more labcriously and conscientiously than the British House of Commons? It was admitted in other countries that that House stood at the head of the representative assemblies of the world. (Cheers.) What other assembly was there that attempted to transact such an amount of business? (Hear.) What assembly was there whose members sacrificed more of personal convenience and of health in the discharge of its duties? (Hear.) The condition of this country was peculiar. There was a vast leisured class to which there was nothing parallel on the face of the earth.”—House of Commons, April 5, 1870.

Associated with these in meaning was a form which we only mention to deplore. This is the old Saxon adjectival form -eht or -iht, as staniht, stony. Thus, in Cod. Dipl. 62o, “ondlong bróces on tone stanihtan ford,'—along the brook to the stony ford. This form is preserved in German, as bergidit, hilly; bornidot, thorny; ectidot, angular; grafidt, grassy; steinidt, stony; and it makes one of the dainties of German poetry.

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unt Reien su fled ten insterfidite Saar. And roses to wreathe in bis goldilock bair. Id. Bk. VI. Grimm observes that in the written German this zidot is much interchanged with zig, while the popular speech has sometimes curtailed it to act. These remarks, which may be seen in his oeutidje (Srammatif, ii. 382, are of general interest to the philologer in regard to that blending of forms which is discovered in all great languages. In -ward, as downward, froward, homeward, inward, leeward, outward, toward, unsoward, upward, wayward. There was also an old adjective lateward, as we learn from the following entry in Randle Cotgrave: “Arrerailles. Lateward seed.”—Dictionarie of the French and English Tongues,

161 I.
toward, unfoward.

“Which when his Palmer saw, he gan to feare
His toward perill and untoward blame,
Which by that new rencounter he should neare;
For death sate on the point of that enchanted speare.’

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In this vocable ward we have to notice some very appreciable relics of an ancient verbal habit. It represents the Saxon verb weoro&AN, to become. Not that it is derived therefrom, but is rather a branchlet of the same stock at an earlier stage. It has, even down to our time, retained traces of an old verbal power, so that it seems now and then to be equivalent not merely to the Latin preposition versus, but also to have the verb vertere in it, or at least the participle versus, -a, -um. In Cicero's Letters to Atticus, xvi. Io, there is a passage where verti . . . versus might in old English have been rendered by the one English word ward. He is saying that he had changed his plans to avoid Antony : ‘I meant to have taken the Appian way direct for Rome. He would have overtaken me easily For they say he's coming with Caesar's own speed. So I from Minturnae Arpinum-ward.’ The last clause stands thus in the Latin: “Verti igitur me a Minturnis Arpinum versus.' I do not say that the translation here given is the best, nor will I even contend that it makes good epistolary prose, but it is something like the use of ward which is about to be quoted. In Chaucer’s Prologue, 396, it is said of the hardy shipman.

“fful manye a draugt of weyn hadde he i drawe
ffrom Burdeux ward, whil that the chapman slep.”
Cambridge MS.

That is to say, he had drawn many a draught of wine out of the sleeping chapman's casks, while on the voyage from Bordeaux. So that ward is equivalent to voyaging, or coming, or being on the voyage.

Something of the same verbality will be perceived in the homeward of the following quotation from near the close of the Laureate’s Elaine :

“But when now the lords and dames
And people, from the high door streaming, brake
Disorderly, as homeward each, the Queen,
Who mark'd Sir Lancelot where he moved apart,
Drew near, and,’ &c.

We might go on to enumerate the adjectives in -full and -less, as fruisul, thankful, fruitless, thankless.


“Ah! what a warning for a thoughtless man,
Could field or grove, could any spot of earth,
Shew to his eye an image of the pangs
Which it hath witnessed; render back an echo
Of the sad steps by which it hath been trod l’

William Wordsworth, The Excursion, Bk. VI.

doughsul– doughty, tild tig.

“The isle [of Man] is divided into “sheddings” (German Scheidungen, boundaries or separations). The judges are called “deemsters,” that is, doomsters, or pronouncers of judgment. The title of the king is “our doughtful Lord.” The place of proclaiming the law is the “Tinwald."'— H. C. Robinson, Diary, 1833.

But here we are already edging the border that separates our present subject from the adjectival compounds. We will therefore close the Saxon division with a mention of those adjectives which are formed by reduplication. Such are shilly-shally, ship-shape, wishy-washy.

“A weak, wishy-washy man, who had hardly any mind of his own.— Anthony Trollope, The Last Chronicle of Barset, ch. vii.

Coming now to the French forms, the first that claims our notice is the greatly used -able -ible. Some of our commonest adjectives are of this type. Examples:—acceptable, accessible, accountable, appreciable, approachable, available, audible, comfortable, contemptible, desirable, estimable, forcible, irrepressible, justifiable, lamentable, manageable, marketable, notable, noticeable, peaceable, practicable, preferable, procurable, profitable, questionable, reasonable, remarkable, reputable, respectable, responsible, seasonable, tolerable, valuable, vulnerable. This form has much expanded in the last two centuries. Many of the adjectives of this type which are most familiar to us do not occur in Shakspeare. He has neither approachable nor unapproachable, nor available, nor respectable. Although he has accept, acceptance, accepted, he has not acceptable. Nor has he accountable, although he has account, accountant, and accounted. He has responsive but not responsible. And although he has value, valued, valuing, and valueless, yet he has not valuable. When we consider the great copiousness of Shakspeare's diction, and his apparently unlimited command of the English of his day, it seems almost equivalent to saying that these terms, so familiar now, had not then been coined. And if this be true only of some of them, we have here a strong mark of the progress of our language in a point which might elude general observation.


“He that is at peace in himself, will be peaceable to others, peaceable in his family, peaceable in the church, peaceable in the state."—Richard Sibbes, Soul's Conflict, ch. ix

conscionable = conscientious.

“Not in a furious zeal for or against trivial circumstances, but in a conscionable practising the substantial parts of religion.”—Isaac Barrow, The Pleasantness of Religion.

This word is no longer used, but its negative unconscionable is still current. unsmotherable. “To the unsmotherable delight of all the porters and bystanders.”—Pickwick Papers, ch. xxviii. colourable. “The wisard could no longer beare her bord, But, bursting forth in laughter, to her sayd:

“Glauce, what needes this colourable word
To cloke the cause that hath it selfe bewrayd?”

The Faerie Queene, iii. 3. 19. ‘November 3, 1869. Vice-Chancellor Malins had before him to-day the case of Bradbury v. Beeton, in which Mr. Jessel, as counsel for Messrs.

Bradbury and Evans, the proprietors of Punch, had asked for an injunction to restrain the defendant from publishing a penny weekly publication called

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