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Saguntinum, et Alorcum Hispanum. Alcon, insciis Sa- U.C. 536. guntinis, precibus& aliquid moturum ratus, quum ad Hanni- A. C. 218. balem noctu transisset, postquam nihil lacrimæ movebant, conditionesque tristes, ut ab irato victore, ferebantur, transfuga ex oratore factus, apud hostem mansit; moriturum affirmans, qui sub conditionibus his de pace ageret. Postulabatur autem, redderent res Turdetanis; traditoque omni auro atque argento, egressi urbe cum singulis vestimentis ibi habitarent, ubi Ponus jussisset. Has pacis leges abnuente Alcone accepturos Saguntinos, Alorcus, vinci, animos', ubi alia vincantur, affirmans, se pacis ejus interpretem fore pollicetur. Erat autem tum miles Hannibalis; ceterum publice Saguntinis amicus atque hospes. Tradito palam telo custodibus hostium, transgressus munimenta, ad prætorem Saguntinum (et ipse ita jubebat) est deductus. Quo quum extemplo concursus omnis generis hominum esset factus, summota cetera multitudine, senatus Alorco datus est: cujus talis oratio fuit. ' Si civis vester Alcon,

. sicut ad pacem petendam ad Hannibalem venit, ita pacis "conditiones ab Hannibale ad vos retulisset, supervacaneum hoc mihi fuisset? iter, quo nec orator Hannibalis, nec transfuga ad vos venissem. Quum ille, aut vestra, aut sua 'culpa, manserit apud hostem, (si metum simulavit, sua;

vestra, si periculum est apud vos vera referentibus) ego, 'ne ignoraretis, esse aliquas et salutis et pacis vobis condi'tiones, pro vetusto hospitio?, quod mihi vobiscum est, ad

Vestra autem causame, nec ullius alterius, . loqui, quæ loquor apud vos, vel ea fides sit, quod, neque 'dum vestris viribus restitistis, neque dum auxilia ab Ro'manis sperastis, pacis unquam apud vos mentionem feci. • Postquam nec ab Romanis vobis ulla spes est, nec vestra 'jam aut arma vos, aut monia satis defendunt, pacem affero ad vos magis necessariam, quam æquam: cujus ita aliqua

13.

VOS veni.

COD

8 Alcon, insciis Saguntinis, preci- broken, when all else is bus, &c.] “ Alcon, as he had, with- quered.” out the knowledge of the Saguntines, Supervacaneum hoc mihi fuisset, repaired to Hannibal by night, in &c.] This visit would have been expectation of producing some effect unnecessary, as I would not have by entreaties; when his appeal proved come upon it either as Hannibal's ineffectual, and harsh conditions were representative, or,” &c. i. e. for I dictated, (as by an exasperated con- need not have come, &c. It will be queror,) becoming a deserter instead observed, that venissem is part of of a mediator, remained with the the subjunctive clause dependent on enemy, declaring that it would be si. death to any who spoke of peace 2 Pro vetusto hospitio.] “In the upon such terms."

spirit of that long friendship,” &c. 9 Vinci, animos, &c.] This must 3 Vestrá autem causd, &c.] “And be understood as a general maxim: that it is for your own sake, and for

“ that the spirit is apt to be no other, &c.; be this the proof.”

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U. C. 536. 'spes est, si* eam quemadmodum ut victor fert Hannibal, A.C. 218.6

sic vos ut victi audiatis: si non id, quod amittitur, in damno, (quum omnia victoris sint) sed, quicquid relin•quitur, pro munere habituri estis. Urbem vobis, quam ex magna jam parte dirutam, captam fere totam habet, adimit, agros relinquit, locum assignaturus, in quo novum oppidum ædificetis : aurum argentumque omne, publicum privatumque, ad se jubet deferri: conjugum vestraque corpora ac liberorum vestrorum servat inviolata, si inermes cum binis vestimentis“ velitis ab Sagunto exire. Hæc 'victor hostis imperat. Hæc, quanquam sint gravia6 atque ' acerba, fortuna vestra vobis suadet. Equidem haud despero, quum omnium potestas ei facta sit, aliquid ex his rebus remissurum. Sed vel hæc patienda censeo potius, quam trucidari corpora vestra, rapi trahique ante ora

vestra conjuges ac liberos belli jure sinatis.' 14.

Ad hæc audienda quum, circumfusa paullatim multitudine, permixtum senatui esset populi concilium; repente primores, secessione facta’, priusquam responsum daretur, argentum aurumque omne, ex publico privatoque in forum collatum, in ignem ad id raptim factum conjicientes, eodem plerique semet ipsi præcipitaverunte. Quum ex eo pavor

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* Cujus itasi.) Only in case having withstood the whole Turkish that, as Hannibal offers it as

army, until defence became hopeless, conqueror, you accept it as con- blew up themselves and their assailquered; that you are prepared to ants together, (A. D. 1824.) Even regard not what is forfeited as a loss, in our late war with China, it is (because all belongs to a conqueror,) recorded that a Tartar commander but what is saved as a boon.” of a garrison performed a similar

5 Cum binis vestimentis.] i. e. feat of heroic despair. Of the many according to Doering, one set of instances in history of this obstinate garments each, in addition to those self-devotion, the most remarkable worn at the time.

perhaps is one of which the scene 6 Hæc, quanquam sint gravia, &c.] was in England. In the year 1189, “These terms, oppressive and galling a considerable number of Jews, reas they may be, your circumstances siding in York, became victims of urge upon you."

the furious bigotry awakened at that 7 Secessione facta.] “ Making a

time throughout Europe by the Cruretreat (withdrawing) before saders. On Palm Sunday in that answer could be given.”

year, perceiving that their lives were 8 Semet ipsi præcipitaverunt.] in danger, they took refuge in the There are many instances on record castle, where a multitude of the of this obstinacy of despair. The citizens immediately assembled to fall of the Assyrian empire, the cap- besiege them. Having in vain ture of Numantia, of Capua, of offered to purchase their lives with Anapa, of the Numidian city Capsa, money, and animated by the speech mentioned by Sallust, were all at of a Rabbi, they put their wives and tended by similar tragedies. In children to death, and threw their more recent times also the same bodies out among the crowd; and spirit has evinced itself. In the late then, setting fire to the castle, peGreek war of independence, the rished in the flames. garrison of the island of Psyra, after

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ac trepidatio totam urbem pervasisset, alius insuper tumultus U.C. 536. ex arce auditur. Turris diu quassata prociderat: perque A.C. 218. ruinam ejus cohors Pænorum impetu facto quum signum imperatori dedisset, nudatam stationibus custodiisque solitis hostium esse urbem; non cunctandum in tali occasione ratus Hannibal, totis viribus aggressus urbem, momento cepit, signo dato, ut omnes puberes interficerentur. Quod imperium crudele, ceterum prope necessarium cognitum ipso eventu est. Cui enim parci potuit ex iis, qui aut inclusi cum conjugibus ac liberis domos super se ipsos concremaverunt, aut armati nullum ante finem pugnæ, quam morientes, fecerunt? Captum oppidum est cum ingenti 15. præda. Quanquam pleraque ab dominis de industria corrupta erant, et in cædibus vix ullum discrimen ætatis ira fecerat, et captivi militum præda fuerant; tamen et ex pretio rerum venditarum aliquantum pecuniæ redactum esse constat, et multam pretiosam supellectilem vestemque? missam Carthaginem.

Octavo mense, quam cæptum oppugnari, captum Saguntum, quidam scripsere : inde Carthaginem novam in hiberna Hannibalem concessisse: quinto deinde mense, quam ab Carthagine profectus sit, in Italiam pervenisse. Quæ si ita sunt, fieri non potuit, ut P, Cornelius, Ti. Sempronius consules fuerint, ad quos et principio oppugnationis legati Saguntini missi sint, et qui in suo magistratu cum Hannibale, alter ad Ticinum amnem, ambo aliquanto post ad Trebiam, pugnaverint. Aut omnia breviora aliquanto

9 Quod imperium crudele, cete- rapid, or, Saguntum was not first rum, &c.] “ And this command, invested, but was taken, in the bethough cruel, was still proved by the ginning of the year,” &c. The arguactual result to have been almost ment of the chronological discussion unavoidable.” Some commentators is this: the interval between the suggest, as an emendation, vix, or commencement of the siege of Saparum, instead of propè. The guntum and Hannibal's arrival in meaning thus conveyed would be, Italy was thirteen months; and, if that the order, such as it was, was that calculation be correct, the consuperfluous, as they had, themselves, suls who opposed Hannibal at the rendered it impossible to spare them. Ticinus and Trebia, could not have I Quanquam pleraque&c.j“Though been the same (Cornelius and Semthe greater part had been purposely prouius) who received the Saguntine destroyed by the owners, and (al- ambassadors at the beginning of the though) the fury of the massacre siege: therefore, either those events scarcely recognised any distinction must have been compressed into a of age; and the prisoners &c.; still, shorter time; or, the capture of the it is certain that” &c.

town must bave occurred at the be. 2 Vestemque.) Under this term, ginning of their year; because the in its wider signification, are com- battle on the Irebia cannot be prehended all textile fabrics for gar- brought down into the consulship of ments and furniture.

the man who was elected after the 3 Automniabreviora &c.] “Either battle, by the consul who conducted all the events were considerably more it.

U.C. 536. fuere, aut Saguntum principio anni, quo.P. Cornelius, Ti. A.C. 218. Sempronius consules fuerunt, non cæptum oppugnari est, sed captum.

Nam excessisse pugna ad Trebiam in annum Cn. Servilii et C. Flaminii non potest: quia Flaminius Arimini consulatum iniit, creatus ab Ti. Sempronio consule; qui, post pugnam ad Trebiam ad creandos consules Romam quum venisset, comitiis perfectis ad exercitum in hiberna

rediit. 16. Sub idem fere tempus et legati, qui redierant a Cartha

gine, Romam retulerunt, omnia hostilia esse, et Sagunti excidium nuntiatum est: tantusque simul moeror Patres, misericordiaque sociorum peremptorum indigne, et pudor non lati auxilii, et ira in Carthaginienses, metusque de summa rerum cepit, velut si jam ad portas hostis esset; ut, tot uno tempore* motibus animi turbati, trepidarent magis, quam consulerent. Nam neque hostem acriorem bellicosioremque secum congressum; nec rem Romanam tam desidem unquam fuisse atque imbellem. Sardos, Corsosque, et Istros, atque Illyrios', lacessisse magis, quam exercuisse, Romana arma : et cum Gallis tumultuatum verius, quam belligeratum. Pænum, hostem veteranum, trium et viginti annorum' militia durissima inter Hispanas gentes semper victorem, primum Hamilcare, deinde Hasdrubale, nunc Hannibale duce acerrimo assuetum, recentem ab excidio opulentissimæ urbis, Iberum transire: trahere secum tot excitos Hispanorum populos: conciturum avidas semper armorum Gallicas gentes. Cum orbe terrarum bellum

gerendum in Italia ac pro mænibus Romanis esse. 17. Nominatæ jam antea consulibus provinciæ erant; tum

sortiri jussi. Cornelio Hispania, Sempronio Africa cum Sicilia evenit. Sex in eum annum decretæ legiones, et so

4 Ut, tot uno tempore &c.) “That nations furnished large contingents; their minds, distracted by so many or, to the quarrel of the Romans, a simultaneous emotions, were rather short time previously, with Teuta, in a state of consternation than deli- queen of Illyria. In any case, those beration."

wars took place between the years 5 Sardos, Corsosque, et Istros, atque A.U.C. 516 and 533. Illyrios.] Corsica and Sardinia had 6 Cum Gallis tumultuatum &c.] been occupied, early in the first « With the Gauls a system of Punic war, by Lucius Scipio. At skirmishes and inroads, rather than the capture of Aleria in Corsica, one of regular war, had been mainof the most memorable events of the tained.” Before this time, the war occurred. Hanpibal, who com- Gauls had invaded Italy on five manded a Carthaginian fleet, suf- several oecasions : on the first of fered it to be blocked up in the which they burned Rome; on the harbour and destroyed, and was in second, the Gallic giant was killed consequence put to death by his own by C. Manlius (Torquatus). troops. The allusion to the Istrians 7 Trium et viginti annorum.] and Illyrians relates either to the This was the interval between the war with Pyrrhus, to whom those first and second Punic wars.

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ciûm quantum ipsis videretur, et classis quanta parari posset. U. C. 536. Quattuor et viginti peditum Romanorum millias sunt scripta, A. C. 218. et mille octingenti equites: sociorum quadraginta millia peditum, quattuor millia et quadringenti equites: naves ducentæ viginti quinqueremes, celoces' viginti deductæ. Latum inde ad populum, 'vellent, juberent, populo Car

thaginiensi bellum indici.' Ejusque belli causa supplicatio per urbem habita, atque adorati dii, ut bene ac feliciter eveniret, quod bellum populus Romanus jussisset. Inter consules ita copiæ divisæ. Sempronio datæ legiones duæ, (ea quaterna millia erant peditum, et treceni equites) et sociorum sexdecim millia peditum, equites mille octingenti: naves longæ centum sexaginta, celoces duodecim. Cum his terrestribus maritimisque copiis Ti. Sempronius missus in Siciliam ; ita in Africam transmissurus, si ad arcendum Italia Pænum consul alter satis esset. Cornelio minus copiarum datum, quia L. Manlius prætor et ipse cum haud invalido præsidio in Galliam mittebatur. Navium maxime Cornelio numerus deminutus. Sexaginta quinqueremes datæ (neque enim mari venturum, aut ea parte belli dimicaturum hostem credebant) et duæ Romanæ legiones cum suo justo equitatu’, et quattuordecim millibus sociorum peditum, equitibus mille sexcentis. Duas legiones Romanas, et decem millia sociorum peditum, mille equites socios, sexcentos Romanos Gallia provincia eodem anno versa: in Punicum bellum habuit.

✓ His ita comparatis, ut omnia justa* ante bellum fierent,

18. legatos majores natu, Q. Fabium, M. Livium, L. Æmilium, C. Licinium, Q. Bæbium, in Africam mittunt ad percunctandos Carthaginienses, publicone consilio Hannibal

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Quattuor et viginti peditum i. e. the treceni equites specified millia,] i. e. six legions. This above. The number of infantry asnumber, however, is inconsiderable, signed above to each legion was when viewed with reference to the by no means invariable. Polybius statement of Pliny, (iii. 20, 24.) mentions 4200 as the complement that Italy alone could have supplied, of a legion. Supposing every cenin A.U.C. 531, (five years before tury to contain literally 100 men, this time,) 700,000 infantry and the legion should have contained 30,000 cavalry.

6000 infantry. 9 Celoces. ] The name of this 3 Eodem anno versa &c.] Gronolight craft (ab re inditum) indicates vius proposes to substitute for this speed. It is akin to the Greek reading, Nondum versa in Punicum term κέλης. .

bellum, i. e. “ not having as yet | Ita in Africam transmissurus, become the scene of the Punic war:” si.] “ With the intention of crossing taking the text as it stands, we into Africa, only in case that (ita must suppose versa to agree with si) the other consul should be suffi- all the foregoing accusatives, in the cient for the" &c.

sense of “transferred,” or “ devoted 2 Cum suo justo equitatu.] “With to.' their regular complemento cavalry,” * Omnia justa.] “All formalities.”

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