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““Look at that comical sparrow,” she said. “Look how he cocks his head first on one side and then on the other. Does he want us to see him? h lompton, or what?”’—George Macdonald, The Seaboard Parish,
The next place seems due to another form of the Latin termination -osus. It is as markedly modern as the previous one is distinguished for its old standing in the language. It has an Italian tinge. This is the form in -ose.
Examples:—bellicose, globose (Milton), gloriose, grandiose, operosé, ofiose, varicose.
‘We lay out of the case such stories of supernatural events as require on the part of the hearer nothing more than an otiose assent; stories upon which nothing depends, in which no interest is involved, nothing is to be done or changed in consequence of believing them.”—Paley's Evidences.
‘I heard Dr. Chalmers preach. It was a splendid discourse, against the Judaical observance of the Sabbath, which he termed “an expedient for pacifying the jealousies of a God of vengeance,”—reprobating the operose drudgery of such Sabbaths. Many years afterwards, I mentioned this to Irving, who was then the colleague of Chalmers; and he told me that the Deacons waited on the Doctor to remonstrate with him on the occasion of this sermon.”—H. C. Robinson, Diary, 1821.
In —ive, Latin -ivus.
Examples :—active, aggregative, appreciative, associative, authoritative, comparative, conclusive, creative, delective, distinctive, elective, exclusive, forgetive (Shakspeare, 2 Henry IV, iv. 3), imaginative, inventive, motive, passive, pensive, positive, reflective, reparative, repulsive, responsive, resentive, sensitive, speculative, suggestive, superlative.
“Grew like the Summer Grasse, fastest by Night,
Shakspeare, Henry V, i. 1.
“Persistive constancy.’—Troilus and Cressida, i. 3.
narrative. “Narrative old age.”—Alexander Pope.
“Horne Tooke having obtained a seat in the House of Commons as representative of the famous borough of Old Sarum.”—H. C. Robinson, Diary, 1801.
“High on her speculative tower
. William Wordsworth, The Eclipse of the Sun, 1820. aggregative, associative, creative, motive. “Fancy is aggregative and associative—Imagination is creative, motive."— John Brown, M.D., Horae Subsecivae. conclusive. “The admissions of an advocate are the most conclusive evidence.’— Bishop of St. David's, Charge, 1863. reparative. “The art of nursing, as now practised, seems to be expressly constituted to unmake what God had made disease to be, viz. a reparative process.’— Florence Nightingale, Notes on Nursing. Appreciative has been a great word of late. Professor Lightfoot (St. Paul and Seneca) speaks of Sir A. Grant's
‘highly appreciative account of the Stoic school.”
“There was something so very distinctive in him, traits and tones to make an impression to be remembered all one's life.”—John Keble, Memoir, p. 452.
In -ine, Latin -inus, -ineus.
Examples:—divine, internecine, marine, sanguine.
Our pronunciation of marine is decidedly French, and thus we are again reminded that our Latin list is not purely and exclusively of direct Latin derival, but only preva. lently so. In -ary, Latin -arius. Examples:—contemporary, missionary, secondary, sanitary, stationary, fertiary, visionary.
petitionary. “Ros. Nay, I pre’ thee now, with most petitionary vehemence, tell me who it is.’—As Pou Like It, iii. 2.
“Claspt hands and that petitionary grace
Alfred Tennyson, The Brook.
This form occurs frequently in its substantival aspect.
signalary. “All the Powers, signataries of the Treaty of 1856.’—Queen's Speech, 1867. contemporary.
‘Seneca was strictly a contemporary of St. Paul.”—Professor Lightfoot, St. Paul and Seneca.
In -atory, Latin -alorius.
Examples : — commendatory, criminatory, derogatory, exculpatory, expiatory, migratory, nugatory, obligatory, preparatory, propitiatory, respiratory, supplicatory.
criminatory. ‘And was taken with strongly criminatory papers in his possession.’
In -ant and -ent, from the Latin participial terminations —ans, -anti's -ems, -entis.
Examples:—blasant, constant, elegant, expedient, insolens, insolvent, jubilant, petulant, solvent.
Many of these forms are used substantively, as expediens, insolvent; and, in one of its senses,
“And I say that the Resurrection is a fact; attested by various and converging evidence; defying the action of the critical solvents which unbelief applies to it; and, let me add, reigning in the thought of every thinking Christian, as a vast evidential power."—H. P. Liddon, at St. Paul's, Easter Day, 1869.
Several of these are rather French than Latin, as the
heraldic rampant. petulant.
‘The boys, when the periodical vacation drew near, growing petulant at the approach of liberty."—Samuel Johnson, Life of Addison.
The word elegant merits a special notice. It is now comparatively little used: we have indeed the traditional combination Elegant Extracts; but almost the only new combination it has entered into in our day is in the dialect of the apothecary, who speaks of ‘an elegant preparation.’
In the last century however, and down to the close of the generation that overlived into this century, we had elegant in a variety of honoured positions. Scott spoke of Goethe as ‘the elegant author of The Sorrows of Werther.’
In the very first sentence of Bishop Lowth's address To the King, which is prefixed to his Isaiah, this word comes in, thus:—
AN attempt to set in a just light the writings of the most sublime and elegant of the Prophets of the Old Testament,’ &c.
George Horne (afterwards Bishop of Norwich), towards the close of last century published some sermons, and half apologising in his Preface said:—
“This form of publication is generally supposed less advantageous at present than any other. But it may be questioned whether the supposition does justice to the age, when we consider only the respect which has so recently been paid to the sermons of the learned and elegant Dr. Blair. And greater respect cannot be paid them than they deserve.’
The form -lent, from the Latin -lensus, must be distinguished from the foregoing.
Examples:—corpulent, esculent, seculent, slatulent, fraudulent, opulent, somnolent, succulent, truculent, violent, virulent.
Some adjectives in -ent, with an L of the root, have a false semblance of belonging here, as benevolent, equivalent, indolent, insolent, prevalent, malevolent. Here we seem almost over the border of English philology, but in dealing with such a borrowing language as ours it is not always easy to draw the boundary line.
esculent. ‘The Chinese present a striking contrast with ourselves in the care which they bestow on their esculent vegetation. . . . . A more general knowledge of
the properties and capabilities of esculent plants would be an important branch of popular education.’—C. D. Badham, The Esculent Funguses of England, ed. F. Currey, p. xvi.
-an, -ian, Latin -amus, -ianus, as African, Indian, Russian, Persian, Polynesian.
This form acquired its importance in the first century of the Roman Empire. The soldiers who attached themselves to Julius Caesar in the civil wars were called Juliani, and this grew to be the established formula for the expression of a body of supporters or followers. The friends of Otho were called Othoniami, those of Vitellius were Vitellian: ; and in
the same general period it was that “the disciples were called Christians first at Antioch.’
- I 2th March, 1821. My dear Friend,-You were very good in writing me so long a letter, and kind in your own Robinsonian way.'—H. C. Robinson, Diary.
We will now proceed to the Greek forms. -ic, from the Greek -ikos. Examples : — academic, acoustic, aesthetic, analytic, arctic,