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U.C. 536. Saguntum oppugnasset ? et si, id quod facturió videbantur, A.C. 218. faterentur, ac defenderent publico consilio factum, ut indicerent populo Carthaginiensi bellum.

Romani postquam Carthaginem venerunt, quum senatus datus esset, et Q. Fabius nihil ultra, quam unum, quod mandatum erat, percunctatus esset; tum ex Carthaginiensibus unus: ‘Præceps ' vestra, Romani, et prior legatio fuit, quum Hannibalem,

tanquam suo consilio Saguntum oppugnantem deposce• batis : ceterum hæc legatio verbis adhuc lenior est, re

asperior. Tunc enim Hannibal et insimulabatur, et deposcebatur: nunc ab nobis et confessio culpæ exprimitur; et, ut a confessis, res extemplo repetuntur. Ego autem non, privato publicone consilio Saguntum oppugnatum sit,

quærendum censeam: sed utrum jure, an injuria. Nostra enim hæc quæstio? atque animadversio in civem nostrum est; nostro, an suo fecerit arbitrio. Vobiscum una disceptatio est, licueritne per fædus fieri. Itaque quoniam dis• cerni placet, quid publico consilio, quid sua sponte impe‘ratores faciant; nobis vobiscum fædus est a Lutatio con'sule ictum: in quo quum caveretur utrorumque sociis, nihil de Saguntinis (necdum enim erant socii vestri) cau

At enim eo foedere, quod cum Hasdrubale ‘ictum est, Saguntini excipiuntur. Adversus quod nihil

ego dicturus sum, nisi quod a vobis didici. Vos enim, . quod C. Lutatius consul primo nobiscum fædus icit, quia neque auctoritate Patrum, nec populi jussu ictum erat, negastis vos eo teneri. Itaque aliud de integro fædus publico consilio ictum est.

non tenent vestra fædera, nisi ex auctoritate aut jussu vestro icta; ne nos quidem Hasdrubalis fædus, quod nobis insciis icit, obligare potuit. Proinde omittite Sagunti atque Iberi men• tionem facere, et, quod diu parturit animus vester, ‘aliquando pariat.' Tum Romanus, sinu ex toga facto',

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5. Et si, id quod facturi &c.] then (you may reply), that in that "And if, as they seemed likely to treaty the Saguntines are secured.” du, they admitted and defended the Excipi was the technical phrase proceeding by public sanction.” applied to prohibitory clauses in

6 Præceps vestra, et prior legatio.] treaties. The Roman Senate were “ Even your former embassy was in the habit of ignoring unsatisill-advised &c. but this” &c. i. e. factory treaties concluded by their hasty as your former embassy was, generals; as, for instance, after their the present is in reality more in- defeat by the Samnites, &c. On temperate, though ostensibly milder. the contrary, Camillus set aside the

? Nostrii enim hæc quæstio &c.] treaty concluded with the Gauls, as “For it is to us that the trial and not having been ratified by his own punishment of our own citizen be. sanction, as chief magistrate. longs, on this question (hæc); whe- 9 Sinu ex togá facto.] “ Taking ther” &c.

up a fold of his toga.” This was 8 At enim co fædere.] “ But done by throwing the corner of the

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Hic, inquit, 'vobis bellum et pacem portamus; utrum U. C. 636. ' placet, sumite. Sub hanc vocem haud minus ferociter,

A.C. 218. daret, utrum vellet,' succlamatum est. Et quum is iterum sinu effuso ‘ bellum dare' dixisset, 'accipere se' omnes responderunt, et, quibus acciperent animis, iisdem se gesturos. Hæc directa' percunctatio ac denuntiatio belli magis ex

19. dignitate populi Romani visa est, quam de føderum jure verbis disceptare, quum ante, tum maxime Sagunto excisa. Nam, si verborum disceptationis res esset: quid fædus Hasdrubalis cum Lutatii priore foedere, quod mutatum est, comparandum erat ? quum in Lutatii foedere diserte additum esset, 'ita id ratum fore, si populus censuisset :' in Hasdrubalis fædere nec exceptum tale quicquam fuerit, et tot annorum silentio’ ita vivo eo comprobatum sit fædus, ut ne mortuo quidem auctore quicquam mutaretur. Quanquam, etsi' priore fædere staretur, satis cautum erat Saguntinis, sociis utrorumque exceptis: nam neque additum erat, iis, qui tunc essent:' nec, ne qui postea assume

rentur.' Et quum assumere novos liceret socios, quis æquum censeret, aut ob nulla quemquam merita in amicitiam recipi, aut receptos in fidem non defendi ? tantum, ne Carthaginiensium socii aut sollicitarentur ad defectionem, aut sua sponte desciscentes reciperentur.

Legati Romani ab Carthagine, sicut his Romæ imperatum erat, in Hispaniam, ut adirent civitates, ut in societatem pellicerent, aut averterent a Ponis, trajecerunt. Ad Bargusios primum venerunt: a quibus benigne excepti, quia tædebat imperii Punici, multos trans Iberum populos ad cupidinem novæ fortunæ erexerunt. Ad Volcianos inde est ventum: quorum celebre per Hispaniam responsum ceteros populos ab societate Romana avertit. Ita enim

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toga over the left shoulder. А so fully recognised by an acquiescdifferent account of this transaction ence of so many years during his is related by Aulus Gellius. He life, that not even after his death says, that Fabius, a member of this

was any objection made.” embassy, wrote to the Carthaginian 3 Quanquam, etsi.] "And still, Senate; that the Roman peuple even though a stand had been taken sent them a spear and a caduceus, on the former treaty, the Saguntines of wbich they might keep which were fully secured by the provision they chose; and that the Cartha- for the allies of both parties.” ginians replied, that they would + Tantum, ne Carthaginiensium make nechoice, but that the mes- &c.] (Provided) only, that the sengers ght leave which they allies” &c.; i. e. so long as the preferred

allies of Carthage were not seduced 1 Hæc directa &c.] “ This from their allegiance. straightforward (explicit) inquiry 5 Ut in societatem &c.] Gronoand declaration of war,” &c.

vius substitutes aut for ut, in con2 Et tot annorum silentio &c.] sequence of the ut preceding and "And (since) the treaty had been the aut following.

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U.C. 536. maximus natu ex iis in consilio respondit: Quæ vereA.C. 218. cundia est, Romani, postulare vos, uti vestram Carthagi

'niensium amicitiæ præponamus, quum, qui id fecerunt, Saguntinos crudelius, quam Ponus hostis perdidit, vos

socii prodideritis ? Ibi quæratis socios, censeo, ubi Sa‘guntina clades ignota est. Hispanis populis, sicut lugubre, ita insigne documentum Sagunti ruinæ erunt, ne quis • fidei Romanæ aut societati confidat.' Inde extemplo abire finibus Volcianorum jussi, ab nullo deinde concilio

Hispaniæ benigniora verba tulere. Itaque nequicquam 20. peragrata Hispania, in Galliam transeunt. In his nova ter

ribilisque species visa est, quod armati (ita mos gentis erat) in concilium venerunt. Quum; verbis extollentes gloriam virtutemque populi Romani ac magnitudinem imperii, petissent, ne Pono, bellum Italiæ inferenti, per agros urbesque suas transitum darent; tantus cum fremitu risus dicitur ortus, ut vix a magistratibus majoribusque natu juventus sedaretur. Adeo stolida impudensque? postulatio visa est, censere, ne in Italiam transmittant Galli bellum, ipsos id avertere in se, agrosque suos pro alienis populandos objicere. Sedato tandem fremitu, responsum legatis est, Neque Romanorum in se meritum esse, neque Carthagi

niensium injuriam, ob quæ aut pro Romanis, aut adversus Pænos sumant arma.

Contra ea audire sese, gentis suæ * homines agris finibusque Italiæ pelli a populo Romano stipendiumque pendere, et cetera indigna pati.' Eadem ferme in ceteris Galliæ conciliis dicta auditaque: nec hospitale quicquam pacatumve satis prius auditum, quam Massiliam venere.

Ibi omnia, ab sociis inquisita cum cura ac fide, cognita', 'præoccupatos jam ante ab Hannibale

Gallorum animos esse : sed ne illi quidem ipsi satis mitem ‘gentem fore, (adeo ferocia atque indomita ingenia esse) 'ni subinde auro, cujus avidissima gens est, principum 'animi concilientur.' Ita peragratis Hispaniæ et Galliæ populis, legati Romam redeunt, haud ita multo post, quam consules in provincias profecti erant. Civitatem omnem

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6 Sicut lugubre, ita insigne &c.] the part of the Romans, nor provo“ The fall of Saguntum will be a cation on that of,” &c. warning as impressive as it is melan- 9 Ibi omnia-cognita.] “ There choly

it had been fully ascertained, having 7 Adeo stolida impudensque.] “So been carefullyand sincerelydiscovered irrational and unreasonable a by their allies,” (that is, by the carequest did it appear, that they (the ful and loyal inquiries of, &c.) The Gauls) should agree” &c. Grono Massilienses were always distinvius would omit censere altogether, guished for their fidelity to the Roand thereby considerably improve man government; and on one methe sentence.

morable occasion closed their gates 8 Neque Romanorum in se meri- against Julius Cæsar, when he was tum.] " There was no claim on declared an enemy by the Senate.

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in exspectationem belli erectam invenerunt, satis constante U.C. 536.

A.C.218. fama', jam Iberum Ponos transmisisse.

Hannibal, Sagunto capto, Carthaginem novam in hiberna 21. concesserat: ibique, auditis, quæ Romæ, quæque Carthagine acta decretaque forent, seque non ducem solum, sed etiam causam esse belli, partitis divenditisque reliquiis prædæ, nihil ultra differendum ratus, Hispani generis milites convocat: “Credo ego vos, inquit, 'socii, et ipsos cernere, pacatis omnibus Hispaniæ populis, aut finiendam nobis militiam, exercitusque dimittendos esse, aut in alias terras transferendum bellum: ita enim hæ gentes non

pacis solum, sed etiam victoriæ, bonis florebunt, si ex aliis gentibus prædam et gloriam quæremus. Itaque, quum

longinqua ab domo instet militia, incertumque sit, quando domos vestras, et quæ cuique ibi cara sunt, visuri sitis, si quis vestrum suos invisere vult, commeatum do. Primo 'vere, edico, adsitis ; ut, diis bene juvantibus?, bellum ingentis gloriæ prædæque futurum incipiamus.' Omnibus fere visendi domos oblata ultro potestas grata erat, et jam desiderantibus suos, et longius in futurum providentibus desiderium. Per totum tempus hiemis quies inter labores, aut jam exhaustos, aut mox exhauriendos, renovavit corpora animosque ad omnia de integro patienda. Vere primo ad edictum convenere.

Hannibal, quum recensuisset omnium auxilia gentium, Gades profectus Herculi vota exsolvit : novisque se obligat votis, si cetera prospera evenissent“. Inde partiens curas simul in inferendum atque arcendum bellum, ne, dum ipse terrestri per Hispaniam Galliasque itinere Italiam peteret, nuda apertaque Romanis Africa ab Sicilia esset, valido præsidio firmare eam statuit. Pro eo supplementum ipse ex Africa, maxime jaculatorum, levium armis, petiit ; ut

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1 Satis constante fama.] As stead of,” (to replace)“ that,” (sc. the report was fully confirmed,” &c. the garrison he had draughted from

2 Ut, diis bene juvantibus &c.] his own army,) "he requested a re“ That, with the active help of the inforcement from Africa.” gods, we may commence

6 Jaculatorum, levium armis.] destined to be one of great glory “Light-armed javelin-men.". The and gain.”

javelin was one of the most primitive 3 Longius in futurum providenti- . and simple weapons. The kind bus desiderium.] Anticipating a used by cavalry was about five feet more protracted absence to come. long, carrying a three-sided or round

4 Si cætera prospera evenissent.] head, and propelled not directly by The use of the pluperfect in relation the hand, but by means of a thong to a future event, implies an ellipsis. at the handle-end. The pilum used “He bound himself by vows,” (which by the Roman infantry was an imwere to be paid) “ in case coming provement on the jaculum, and so events should have (by that time) constructed that the long narrow proved favourable.”

head was either bent or broken at 5 Pro eo supplementum &c.] “In- the first discharge, so as to be use

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U. C. 536. Afri in Hispania, in Africa Hispani, melior procul ab domo A. C. 218. futurus uterque miles, velut mutuis pignoribus obligati,

stipendia facerent. Tredecim millia octingentos quinquaginta pedites cætratos? misit in Africam, et funditores 8 Baliares octingentos septuaginta : equites mixtos ex multis gentibus mille ducentos. Has copias partim Carthagini præsidio esse, partim distribui per Africam jubet. Simul conquisitoribus in civitates missis, quattuor millia conscripta delectæ juventutis, præsidium eosdem et obsides”, duci Carthaginem jubet. Neque Hispaniam negligendam ratus, atque ideo haud minus, quod haud ignarus erat, circumitam ab Romanis eam legatis ad sollicitandos principum animos) Hasdrubali fratri, viro impigro, eam provinciam destinat, firmatque eum Africis maxime præsidiis, peditum Afrorum undecim millibus octingentis quinquaginta, Liguribus trecentis, Baliaribus quingentis. Ad hæc peditum auxilia additi equites Libyphænices (mixtum Punicum Afris genus) trecenti, et Numidæ Maurique accolæ Oceani ad mille octingenti, et parva Ilergetum manus ex Hispania, ducenti equites: et, ne quod terrestris deesset auxilii genus, elephanti quattuordecim. Classis præterea data ad tuendam maritimam oram, (quia, qua parte belli vicerant, ea tum quoque rem gesturos Romanos, credi poterat) quinquaginta quinqueremes, quadriremes duæ, triremes quinque: sed aptæ instructæque remigio’ triginta et duæ quinqueremes erant, et triremes quinque.

Ab Gadibus Carthaginem ad hiberna exercitus rediit: atque inde, profectus præter Etovissam urbem, ad Iberum maritimamque oram ducit. Ibi, fama est, in quiete visum

less to an enemy. The javelin is between Charles of Blois and the still used on horseback, but only as Earl of Montfort, for the Duchy of a pastime, by some eastern nations, Brittany, in the reign of Philip de and known among them as the Valois, the peasantry of Brittany djereed."

assaulted the French army with 1 Pedites cætratos. ] These are slings. It is also stated by D'Aucalled peltastæ below. (!. xxxi. 36.) bignè, that they were used by the Cætræ were small shields made ex: Huguenots at the siege of Sancerre, clusively of leather.

in order to save their powder. 8 Funditores.] The sling is said 9 Præsidium eosdem et obsides.) to be still used, with considerable “Both as a garrison and as hostages.” effect, by the Minorquin peasants.

1 Mixtum Punicum Afris genus.] In ancient wars, according to Dio- “A mingled race of Phænicians and dorus, the Baleares carried three Africans.” Diodorus Siculus (1. xx. slings, one in the hand, one round 55.) classifies the ancient inhabitthe waist, and one round the head. ants of Africa into Carthaginienses, The range is said to have been about Libyphænices, Numidæ, and Afri. 600 yards. There are some re- 2 Sed aptæ instructæque remigio.] markable instances of the use of the “ But there were in addition to sling in medieval warfare. Frois- the fleet) 32 quinqueremes, and five sart (ch. 85.) says, that, in a battle triremes, rigged and manned.”

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