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tion of the edict of Nantes its dungeons at the request of Madame de Saint became the prison of many distinguished Mars, Madame le Bret, her intimate Protestants, guilty of not wishing to friend, busied herself at Paris in choosbelie their consciences and abjure their ing the finest linens and most beautiful faith.
laces, which were sent to him in his It was into one of the bombproofs of prison. this fortress that, on the 30th day of One day a frater saw something white April, 1687, a man was introduced by floating on the water, under the window Monsieur de Saint Mars. He had con- of his prison. He crept around the foot ducted him from Pignerol in Piedmont of the wall, and drew it up, and carried then a province of France, where he had it to St. Mars. It was very tightly foldbeen incarcerated since 1662. This pris- ed up. St. Mars unfolded it, and found oner wore upon his face, night and day, it to be a fine linen shirt, upon which a mask of black velvet fastened upon the prisoner had written from end to bards of copper, and so constructed as end. With an air of great concern,
he to permit of the free use of the mouth. asked the frater if he had had the The furniture of his prison was of the curiosity to read what was written most sumptuous description. The ves
upon the shirt.
The latter protested sels of his toilette and of his table were many times that he had read nothing. of silver, and Saint Mars, who served him Nevertheless, two days after he was with his food, never presumed to sit in found dead in his bed. his presence. The order was to kill him At another time he demanded that the inoment he uncovered his face. they should bring a woman to live with
The fame of this prisoner has gone him in his prison. A woman of Monthrough all the countries of the world, gins was found willing, for the price as * THE MAN IN THE IRON MASK." offered, which was a fortune for her
One day the prisoner wrote upon a poor children. But when she was about silver plate with the point of his knife, entering the door of the prison, she was and threw it out of his window towards a told she was never to come out, or see fisherman's boat that lay just under the again her children, or to have any relawall of his prison. The fisherman picked tion with any other human being. She it up and carried it to the governor of refused to be shut up with a prisoner the fortress, St. Mars. He took it, greatly whose acquaintance cost so dear. astonished, and asking the fisherman if At one time the arrogant minister of he had read what was written upon it; Louis XIV., the infamous Duke du Louand upon his replying that he did not vois, came to see the prisoner, and it know how to read, he had him held in was observed that he stood up in his custody until he had the most positive presence, and spoke to him with great proof of that fact, and that the plate had respect and humility. been seen by no one else; he then In September, 1698, the prisoner was dismissed him, saying, “ You are a for- transferred, still under the conduct of tunate fellow in not knowing how to St. Mars, to the Bastile, in Paris, where, read.” Immediately after this occur- as one may still read in the journal of rence the governor had fastened into the Monsieur du Jonca, the king's lieutenant thick walls (about twelve feet thick), of the Bastile, “he died suddenly, on the outside of the one window of his prison, 19th of November, 1703, at four o'clock a triple network of strong iron bars.
· Surprised by death,” says the They are still to be seen there, half con- lieutenant, "he was not able to receivə sumed by rust.
the sacraments, but our alinoner exNo demand of the prisoner, possible borted him a moment before he died.” to supply, was refused him. He had In the night after his decease, they the greatest fondness, amounting to a buried him in the cemetery of the kind of mania, for the finest linen and parish of St. Paul's, under the name of laces. The fact is well known that, Marchiali, aged about 49 years.
the morrow of his interment, a person and, consequently, while he, Voltaire, bribed the grave-digger to uncover the was still living, and which " addition" body, thinking to get a view of the un- the learned bibliographer, Beuchot, asmasked face, as the faces of the dead are cribes to Voltaire himself, it is written: usually unmasked. They found, in the “ The Man in the Iron Mask was, withplace of the head, a large stone.
out doubt, the son of Anne of Austria, " The old surgeon of the Bastile," and consequently the brother of Louis says Voltaire, “told me that he had XIV., but not the son of Louis XIII., often seen the tongue of this unknown, her husband,” but never his face: he was a person Whoever would know the whole ar. admirably well made, with a slightly gument may consult the said " addition brown skin, and a most engaging voice. of the editor” in the published works He never complained of his condition.”' of Voltaire, or by a shorter cut may
When the people of Paris took the read in a letter of Benjamin Franklin, Bastile, in July, 1789, upon examining written while he was ambassador at the its register, it was found that the leaf court of Versailles, to John Jay, as folcorresponding to the year 1698, the lows: year of his entrance there, had been
Yesterday I had a conversation with the cut out.
Duke de Richelieu. He seems favorably disAnd who was "THE MAN IN THE Iron posed towards our cause. I flattered him very MasK?” Many volumes have been much in speaking of the administration of his filled with conjectures, in which the
glorious relative, the Cardinal de Richelieu.
I took advantage of this occasion to ask him names of men of many countries and
if he was ignorant as to who the Man in the various conditions, and some women, Iron Mask was, since it was quite evident that too, have figured—the Duke of Beau- be must have been born during the adminisfort, for instance, surnamed “ King of
tration of the cardinal. My interlocutor at the Halles,” who was the natural son of
first took an air of great mystery; then, telling
me that the matter in question was a secret of Cæsar de Vendôme, the natural son
state, he revealed to me what follows, and of IIenry IV., by Gabrielle d'Estrées. which, without fear, I confide to you. But, at the defence of Candie, in 1669, The Iron Mask was a child of Anne of Austhe Turks took this King of the Halles, tria, and probably the Duke of Buckingham cut off his head and sent it to Constanti
was his father. The queen, having no one in
whom she dared confide, threw herself into nople. The Duke of Monmouth was
the arms of her enemy, the cardinal, who aranother. But well-authenticated state
ranged every thing, so as to hide the affair records prove that the blessed King from the king. It was this event which deterJames had him publicly executed in the mined Richelieu to bring the king and the city of London, in 1685.
queen together--the latter, up to this time, Mathioli, secretary of the Duke of
having been considered barren ; thence the
birth of Louis XIV, and of Monsicur, The Mantua, was another. And an old phy
illegitimate child, at first confided to Madame sician of Cannes, who was called to visit Motteville, was, after the death of Richelieu, him professionally, in his prison at St. taken away from her by Mazarin, who, from Marguerite, declared that “The Man in the age of sixteen years until his death, kept the Iron Mask " was a woman; that
him shut up in prison. The resemblance of
the captive to Louis XIV. was astonishing; he krew it by the feeling of his pulse.
and thence the mask they made him wear. Whoever he was, it is quite evident They wished to avoid political complications that that old fox, Card Richelieu, as well as to hide the weakness of Anne of and the powers he served himself with,
Austria. did not wish to have his face seen. The story runs that Louis XIV. only Nor did he deem it expedient to conceal knew of the existence of this elder broit at once and forever in the grave; it ther from Cardinal Mazarin at the hour served him better to keep it as a menace of his death, and that when near his own for his enemies.
end be confided the secret to the Regent In “ an addition of the editor” to the d'Orleans, from whose daughter, Mlle. works of Voltaire, published in 1771, de Vallois, afterwards Duchess of Mode
PLACVIT ET SALTAVIT
na, the Duke de Richelieu obtained it at a late to you a page from M. Thiers' period when he was her lover.
Histoire du Consulat et de l'Empire: But our space here will not suffice for " At a given signal, and to the booming further entertainment over the chronicles of cannon, the tricolor was given to the of Cannes and its islands of St. Honorat wind on board all the vessels. Each and St. Marguerite. Nor are these by soldier took his tricolored cockade, and any means more interesting than those lowering the ships' boats, made for the of the other old cities of the Mediterra- shore. At five o'clock the debarcation nean coast before us. Take, for instance, was finished. The eleven hundred men, that old town of Antibes, Antipolis, with four pieces of cannon and their Phocian colony of Marseilles, some hun- baggage, were safely landed and had esdreds of years before Christ. You tablished their bivonac in an olive ormight fill a volume with its lore. If you chard, near the road leading from Antibes chance to go there, by the side of one of to Cannes. At first the inhabitants, se:its old churches you may find two ing several vessels full of men firing Roman towers, and upon a stone built cannon, believed that it was an attack of into the wall of one of them the follow- pirates on their little fleet of fishing boats, ing inscription :
and were greatly frightened. But soon,
better informed, moved by curiosity they PvERE SEPTEN.
ran together in crowds, but pronounced TRIONIS AN XII
neither for nor against the movement, QVI ANTIPOLI IN THEATRO BIDvo
for the populations of the coast were
not in general in favor of the Empire, " To the shades of the child Septentrion us, aged 12 years, who appeared two days at the theatre
which had cost fifteen years of maritime of Antibes and danced and pleased."
warfare. Napoleon sent Cambronne “Evidently,” says Michelet, “one of with an advanced guard to Cannes to the slaves, bred up to be let out at a order supplies and buy horses, and as he great price to the purveyors to the pub- wished to attract and not to drive from lic spectacles of the Romans, and who him the people, he ordered every thing perished a victim to the barbarism of to be paid for in cash. Roman tastes.” “I know nothing more "Towards evening, in pursuance of an tragic in its brevity than this inscrip- order he had given to stop all travellers tion, nothing that makes one feel more passing on the road, they conducted to sensibly the hardness of the Roman his bivouac the Prince of Monaco, who, World.” “Appeared two days at the like so many others at that time, had theatre of Antibes, danced and pleased.' gone over to the Restoration. Не Not a regret! only the expression of a caused him to be set at liberty immedi. destiny fulfilled.”
The singularity is ately, and receiving him gayly, asked him that they should have set up the inscrip- which way he travelled. tion. But the Romans often built tombs "I am going home,' said the Prince. for their broken toys. Nero built a "And I also,' said Napoleon, and monument to the manes of a crystal wishing his fellow-sovereign of Monaco
a good voyage, disinissed him.” But our dinner of Mediterranean mer- And at midnight, following Camlon, mountain gigot and green peas, awaits bronne, who had preceded him with a
Let us descend by this less preci- detachment of a bundred men, he set out pitous path that leads towards the head upon that remarkable journey, which did of the gulf, and we shall reach the shore indeed conduct him to his last home on at a point where, surrounded by old olive that far-off Island of St. Helena. and orange trees, there stands a little From the little granite pillar that pillar of granite, upon the square pedes- marks the spot where Napoleon I., with tal of which is written, “In commem- his heart so full of a wild arrogance and oration of the 1st of March, 1815.” And hope, passed the night of March 1st, as we walk at our leisure, I will trans- • 1815, to our old chateau, it is bat a walk
of a few minutes, and yet ten to one, if we It may be, that to many people these go by the main road, we shall be met, shores of the Golfe de Jouan, with all even away here on these remote mountain the aroma of their lore as well as of sides, by one of the most hateful forms of their orange-blossoms and violets, may the existing state of things in France. It seem very far-fetched—and not worth consists of two big, moustached gens the cost of the journey necessary to reach d'armes, on horseback, who, with swords them. But as I am about finishing this by their sides and great bear-skin caps on too long and rambling account, a letter their heads, ride with pompous leisure, comes to me from a friend in Paris, through the country, with an air of as- bearing date the very last of May, and sured and imperturbable mastership, the telling me that a New York gentleman exact counterpart of that which keeps its who has just returned from the Golfe de imperial watch over the ruins of human Jouan, declares that the “spring is still freedom in the capital of the Empire. more beautiful there, than the winter; But as we pass them, the jocund waves that the flower-harvest is at its prime; of the sea leap into the embraces of the the peasants spread over all the country verdant sunny shores, with a shout of de- gather the orange-blossoms and other risive laughter, and the hateful vision of flowers, singing in chorus from morning Imperialism with all its blinding glare till night the songs of the country-of vanishes into thin air, and,
the Old Troubadours."
" He ceases Like the baseless fabric of a vision,
not to repeat," says my letter, " that it is truly a FAIRY-LAND.”
Leaves not a rack behind.
LOUIS NAPOLEON AND HIS EMPIRE.
EDMOND ABOUT, in that quaint conceit wearied with Bourbon bigotry, conof his, “The Man with the Broken Ear,'' * temptuous of Orleanist formalism, and resuscitates the mummy of a Colonel of disgusted with Republican utopianism, the first Napoleon's army, and, with an looked forward with enthusiasm to a art peculiar to himself, shows us what reproduction of the splendid era of impression the present Empire would Napoleon Bonaparte. The new Emmake upon a man who had lived and peror himself encouraged that feeling; participated in that Empire which it and the neighboring nations of Europe prosesses to imitate. The likeness is looked with great misgiving upon his hardly recognizable, as may be sup- success. He would, he said, complete posed. There is a double, and a very the imperial edifice which Napoleon I. marked, contrast between the two: in- had left half finished, and which the stead of martial glory, the second Em- Restoration and the two Revolutions pire has been almost without interrup- had only half bidden, not destroyed. tion a peace-seeking power; and instead France should once more be the leader of interior misery, the torpor of trade, and the guide of European civilization; and the frightful exhaustion which the treaties of 1815 should be destroyed; France exhibited during the earlier there would now be something for Bonapartist régime, there has been, France to do, well worthy of her genius. during the later one, an almost constant To extend her dominion to the Rhine, and a visibly increasing prosperity. the German Ocean, and the Alps; to There is no doubt that, when the pres- render her defences impregnable; to ent Empire arose, the French people, dictate peace and war, treaties and con
cessions, to other nations——these were Recently translated with spirit for American readers by Henry Holt, Esq., and published by the New Gospel of Napoleonism. All
said to be the alpha and the omega of Leypoldt & Holt.
her resonrces, all her aspirations, all her What did he do with this army? There policy, all her thoughts, were to be once have been no Italian campaigns, no more turned to military glory. France Austerlitz and Jena, no heroic plunges must shine-and shing she could not, into Northern snows, no Waterloo de. except by the paraphernalia, the trophies feats, shedding a last magnificent glory of victorious war. Upon such promises, on the vanquisher. Why? Because hinted if not loudly spoken, Napoleon this shrewd, grimly-silent man, having III. relied to win to his dynasty the been knocked about the world for thirty hearts of the people.
years—an exile in Germany, a prisoner Two things-on the one hand, the in France, à loafer in New York, a traditions of Napoleonism and the prom- special policeman at the English capital ise held out by them, and on the other, --an observer everywhere, hearing men the mysterious and grimly-silent char- talk, and seeing them act, tanght by acter of the man hiinself, have opérated, vicissitude not to trust too much, havfrom the first day of his reign to this, to ing recognized the fact that thrones make Napoleon III. universally suspect- grow more precarious, and the people ed and distrusted. Every movement of bolder and stronger and more knowing his, not sufficiently explained at the every year,—this shrewd man knew that moment, has been construed as the com- he had got into a generation of men mencement of some gigantic Napoleonic entirely different from that with which plot. The most commonplace expres- Napoleon I. had to deal--in a word, saw sions have been discovered to hold a that the age was not fit for and would bidden meaning. Every journey which never suffer a repetition of the first he undertook, every unusual courtesy Empire. The forces which finally made which he extended to this or that forNapoleon I. a failure, which rendered eign dignitary, nay, almost every turn him, as a permanency, impossible, are a of his eye, or movement of his head, hundredfold stronger, happily, to-day. have set afloat a thousand snggestions Napoleon III. created this gre:t army, of sinister purposes and darkly contem- and promised a new Cæsarian military plated projects. It is singular that these Empire; but the diys of Cæsarianism ideas should, after eighteen years' ex- were gone by forever. perience of Napeleon III., still cling to which was to win new glories for people's minds. In America, for ex- France, was quietly used to sustain him. ample, we are accustomed to regard this self; and that is the underlying fact of quiet and rather indolent man, who is this second Empire. Napoleon III. does only anxious to hold his own, and who, not trust the French people; he only if he ever did have an ambition to sub- half trusts, while coquetting with, the ject Europe to one great Empire, has priesthood; he does not trust to the long since abandoned it—a man by no popularity of his own policy, nor to the
as mysterious as is supposed, splendor of his name, nor to his Imperial and whose chief political mint lies in his patronage, nor to conquests now become worldly experience, his knowledge of impossible; his, only trust, his only men, and his shrewd reading of the rampart, his only safety, is in the army. necessities and the weaknesses of the And to sustain and increase this last, French character,-we are wont to look but hitherto efficient defence, he has npon him as a very ogre, as a royal repeatedly,--and especially of late, Balsamo, who, by his dark acts, may, risked not only his popularity, but inwhen his concoctions are prepared, surrection, open resistance to his authorcharm the nations to sleep, and thus ity, the raising of ominously seditious win their helpless homage at his will. cries beneath the windows of his palaces.
Let us see. Promising that the old The writer heard, last spring,—when the Empire should be restored, with a re- new army-law, increasing the available newed and vigorous youth, he estab force at the disposition of the Governlished himself, and created a great army. ment to 1,400,000 men, was put in