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tory of them are confounded; to the account of these new deeds in which, etc.

praevalentis: cf. magnitudine laboret, above.

ipsae: see Gr. 195. l.

praevalentis populi vires se ipsae conficiunt. Ego contra 5 hoc quoque laboris praemium petam, ut me a conspectu malorum, quae nostra tot per annos vidit aetas, tantisper certe dum prisca illa tota mente repeto, avertam, omnis expers curae, quae scribentis animum etsi non flectere a vero, sollicitum tamen efficere posset.

Quae ante conditam condendamve urbem poeticis 6 magis decora fabulis quam incorruptis rerum gestarum monumentis traduntur, ea nec adfirmare nec refellere in animo est. Datur haec venia antiquitati, ut miscendo 7 humana divinis primordia urbium augustiora faciat, et si cui populo licere oportet consecrare origines suas et ad


5. quoque i.e. besides any success in the undertaking.

malorum: i.e. the civil war.

omnis: cf. sine omni, without any. But here the idiom is like

our own.


curae: i.e. the fear of giving offence in the treatment of recent Occurrences. Cf. Hor. Od. II. 1. 6, - scribentis: plenum opus aleae. cf. note on legentium, 4. flectere: i.e. so as to warp his account through fear or favor: 'It could not make the historian untrue, but might worry him.'-posset: contrary to fact; i.e. if I were not expers curae.' Livy is speaking now only of the earlier history, and in this he is expers curae.


6. conditam condendamve: i.e.

built or building; the first referring to the accounts of the immediate founders; the second, to the adventures of Æneas and their consequences. For construction, see Gr. 292 a, 300, and cf. inter bibendum and the like, and ante domandum, Georg. III. 206. The construction is no doubt an old one retained in colloquial use. - decora, becoming. poeticis: i.e. when truth is not required. incorruptis, unfalsified; i.e. untainted by any suspicion of untrustworthiness. monumentis, records, as the sources of history. adfirmare, refellere : not merely affirm and deny, but establish and attempt to refute.

7. datur, we grant (emphatic). It is an indulgence not denied to early times to invent such myths, and so they are justifiable, whether we believe them or not. - ut... faciat: see Gr. 317. a.

divinis: the neuter in the cases which are alike in all genders is rare in Cicero, but becomes common later. Here it is more natural on account of humana preceding.

si cui populo, etc., if ANY people ought to be ALLOWED. — - consecrare,

deos referre auctores, ea belli gloria est populo Romano ut, cum suum conditorisque sui parentem Martem potissimum ferat, tam et hoc gentes humanae patiantur aequo animo quam imperium patiuntur.

8 Sed haec et his similia, utcumque animadversa aut existimata erunt, haud in magno equidem ponam dis9 crimine; ad illa mihi pro se quisque acriter intendat animum, quae vita, qui mores fuerint, per quos viros quibusque artibus domi militiaeque et partum et auctum imperium sit; labente deinde paulatim disciplina velut desidentis primo mores sequatur animo, deinde ut magis magisque lapsi sint, tum ire coeperint praecipites, donec ad haec tempora, quibus nec vitia nostra nec remedia 10 pati possumus, perventum est. Hoc illud est praecipue


add sanctity to. - referre: sc. origines. ea, etc. i.e. they have such fame as a warlike people, that the nations of the earth, having been conquered by them, may well allow their claim. the position continues an implied emphasis on the Roman people, and at the same time opposes suum to conditoris. - potissimum, rather than any other; precisely the god of war. ferat, claims. - -et hoc: i.e. this claim as well as their actual sovereignty.-patiuntur: the repetition of the verb implies 'as we see they are willing to do.'

8. animadversa, etc., criticised or appreciated.-haud: modifying in magno.-in magno discrimine ponam, attach any great weight to. Cf. aequa in laude ponendum est, Cic. Top. 18. 71; in honore ponunt, Cluent. 20. 57; and nullo discrimine habebo, Aen. X. 108. No doubt the expression is derived from bookkeeping (cf. lucro appone), and discrimen is used in the sense of controversy.equidem, I'm sure.


9. ad illa, to the point; i.e. the following (as more generally interesting) questions.mihi: ethical dative; almost as much as 'my feeling is.'

vita, private life; mores, public morals.-per, by the instrumentality of, not by, which would be a.—artibus, means, but referring to the personal conduct and qualities of the Romans. deinde: used to connect the decline with the growth. -labente disciplina, as their principles were sapped.

velut desidentis primo mores, the first giving way, as it were, of morals.desidentis: of a gradual subsidence, as opposed to magis lapsi sunt, and finally to praecipites, etc. The whole figure is derived from a decaying edifice. deinde: the second moment. - ut, how.vitia, etc.: the figure is from the healing art. Sufficiently active remedies would kill the patient.

10. hoc illud est, this is the

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in cognitione rerum salubre ac frugiferum, omnis te exempli documenta in inlustri posita monumento intueri; inde tibi tuaeque rei publicae quod imitere capias, inde foedum inceptu, foedum exitu quod vites.

thing. cognitione rerum, the
study of history, as we should call
it.omnis te, etc.: the emphasis
gives the force: Every example
should have a personal application,
getting force from the conspicuous-
ness of the case where it occurs.'.
tibi, etc. (continuing the emphasis
of te): i.e. personally and politi-
cally (rei publicae).
inde inde: the clauses are
rather loosely opposed. It is only
in a free sense that capias can be
used of foedum. It would rather
correspond to vites; but this is
made to correspond to imitere.
Still the turn, or, if we like, zeugma,
is not unnatural, as capias takes
the place of something like notes.

Ceterum aut me amor negotii suscepti fallit, aut nulla 11 umquam res publica nec maior nec sanctior nec bonis exemplis ditior fuit, nec in quam civitatem tam serae avaritia luxuriaque immigraverint, nec ubi tantus ac tam diu paupertati ac parsimoniae honos fuerit; adeo quanto rerum minus, tanto minus cupiditatis erat. Nuper divi- 12 tiae avaritiam et abundantes voluptates desiderium per luxum atque libidinem pereundi perdendique omnia in

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vexere. Sed querellae, ne tum quidem gratae futurae cum forsitan necessariae erunt, ab initio certe tantae 13 ordiendae rei absint. Cum bonis potius ominibus votisque et precationibus deorum dearumque, si, ut poetis, nobis quoque mos esset, libentius inciperemus, ut orsis tanti operis successus prosperos darent.

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Iam primum omnium satis constat Troia capta in 1 ceteros saevitum esse Troianos; duobus, Aeneae Antenorique, et vetusti iure hospitii et quia pacis reddendaeque Helenae semper auctores fuerunt, omne ius belli Achivos abstinuisse; casibus deinde variis Antenorem cum mul- 2 titudine Enetum, qui seditione ex Paphlagonia pulsi et sedes et ducem rege Pylaemene ad Troiam amisso] quaerebant, venisse in intimum Hadriatici maris sinum, Euga- 3 neisque, qui inter mare Alpesque incolebant, pulsis


(Cf. Virg. Aen. V. 827 seq., VII. 25 seq.)

1. iam, well then; forming the transition from the preface.-satis constat, it is sufficiently settled, generally agreed; not necessarily that Livy believed it. Cf. Pref. 6 and 8.

saevitum esse, the Greeks vented their rage; i.e. the others were slain.

duobus: a poetic dative instead of ablative; cf. arcere, depellere. Antenori: cf. Aen. I. 242 seq.

hospitii: Ulysses and Menelaus were entertained by Antenor when they came to demand Helen. This, of course, implies some relation of the kind mentioned.

auctores: for Antenor, cf. I. III. 148-264, VII. 345 seq.; for Æneas, II. XX. 298, XIII. 460; where, however, it is not definitely asserted. ius, etc. i.e. they let them go free. -Achivos: a poetic word.-abstinuisse, gave up; refrained from exercising.

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