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tor understands by all others of a like fort? He concludes from all this, that learned men have not courage enough to acknowledge their ignorance on certain occafions, even when they themfelves are fenfible of it. This we believe to be very true: and this is more especially the cafe with the Latin tranflators of Greek authors, who giving word for word, and only taking care of the grammatical conftruction, have tranfmitted the obfcurity of difficult paffages in their tranflations, and hoped that their readers would impute this obfcurity either to the original author, or to their own incapacity.- -The Abbé BATTEUX finds the paffage in queftion difficult, but he thinks he has hit off the true explication. His tranflation of the whole definition is as follows: Tragedy is the imitation of an action that is elevated entire, and of a certain extent, &c. producing in us, not by a recital, but by terror and pity, THESE emotions or PASSIONS, purged or purified from what is difagreeable in them *. We fhewed, in a preceding Appendix †, what ideas the Abbé attaches to these terms. According to him, the end of tragedy, as defined by Aristotle, is, (by the exhibition of a fictitious catastrophe) to make us feel the paffions of pity and terror difengaged from the circumftances that render them painful. The Grecian philofopher had observed, fays our Academician, that the emotions of joy from fictitious objects produce a fort of dejection in the mind when the fcene is finished, and concluded from hence that fcenes, productive of pity and terror, were preferable in tragedy, as they excite emotion without anguish, fear without danger, and compassion without the existence of miferable objects; and thus the paffions of fear and compaffion affect the mind without tormenting it, and are difengaged, or (as Ariftotle expreffes it) purged from the poignancy and dejection that accompany them in real life.

All this is very ingenious-but it happens not to be true: the three laft words of Ariftotle's definition have been totally mifunderstood for the word málna is never employed by him to fignify paffions, and the tranflators have not attended to the propriety of the Greek language in the different ideas it conveys by. the words aos and malnμa; by the latter of which is always meant not paffions (which are expreffed by the former), but fufferings or calamities. Again, the word natapow does not here mean purification or refinement; for, though xafaipw fignifics often to clean, purge or purify, this is only its fecondary fignification, formed, indeed, by an eafy and natural transition from its

La tragedie eft l'imitation d'une action noble, entiere, d'une certaine etendue, &c. pour produire en nous, non par le recit, mais par la terreur et la pitie, ces emotions purgeés de ce qu'elles ont de defagréable.

See the Appendix to the fixty-first volume of our Review,

P. 524:


primitive and original fenfe, which is, to remove fomething entirely. So that the end of tragedy, as it is reprefented by Ariftotle, is, by exhibiting certain calamities on the ftage, to remove fuch calamities (TaxTV Tanμarwv) out of human life, by exciting the pity and terror of the audience at the representation of them. The first perfon (if we are not mistaken), who hit off this happy explication of the difficult paffage in question, was the late Dr. James Moor, profeffor of Greek in the University of Glafgow*.

Critical Remarks on the Text, and on certain Tranflations of the Hippolytus of Euripides. By M. DUPUY. An Enquiry into the Philofophy of Cicero. Firft Memoir. By Mr. GAUTIER DE SIBERT. In order to form a true judgment on this subject, our Author has thought it neceffary to make a previous enquiry into the manner in which philofophy was introduced into. Rome-the progrefs it had already made there in the time of Cicero-the number of academical fects, and their peculiar and diftinguishing tenets-the fect which Cicero embraced, and what he properly meant when he called himself an Academic Philofopher. These points are learnedly difcuffed in this first part of the Memoir before us; but our Academician walks here in a beaten path of erudition, and throws no new light, as yet, on the philofophy of Cicero, whatever he may do in the fecond part, in which he promifes an analytical view of the doctrine of the Roman fage, extracted from his works. Every one knows, that Cicero was not one of those cloudy-headed and fuperficial academics who doubted about every thing, against which human ignorance could form complaints of obfcurity, or metaphyfical fophiftry raise objections: it is well known, that his affuming the title of an academic was defigned to keep him difengaged from the fervitude of fyftem, and from the defpotifm of philofophical fectarifm, and thus free to embrace the truth in whatever fect or party he found it.

Remarks on certain Medals of the Emperor Antoninus, ftruck in Egypt. By the Abbé BARTHELEMY.

An Examination of the Hiftory of the Ephefian Matron, and of the different Imitations it has occafioned. By M. DACIER. Á moft infipid mafs of philology.

An Account of a Greek Manufcript in the King's Library, in the Hand-writing of the Sixteenth Century, on 4to Paper, and marked 12912. By M. DACIER. The work contained in this Manufcript is indicated in the title by the word SYNTIPAS: we learn from the fame title, that it is a tranflation, and even a ftrictly literal one, from the Syriac into Greek. A kind of ar

* See a fmall Pamphlet of his intitled, An Essay on the end of Tragedy, according to Ariftotle; of which an account was given in Monthly Review, vol. xxx. p. 64.



gument or fummary of contents, which probably has been prefixed to it by the tranflator, unfolds the fubject of it in the following manner: "The hiftory of the philofopher, written by us, regards Cyrus King of Perfia, his legitimate fon, Syntipas, "the preceptor of the young prince, the feven philofophers of "the king, and one of his wives, who was equally ill-natured "and immodeft:- the Reader will, moreover, fee in this work, "the calumnies and intrigues invented by that stepmother to "ruin the young Cyrus." This is a curious romance, and muft have been well known in all nations; for it has appeared in all languages. The Greek, as we obferved already, was tranflated from the Syriac, and the Syriac was (as our Academician informs us), tranflated from the Hebrew, the Arabic, or the Perfian. The remarks of M. DACIER on this piece are worthy of the name he bears,

There are fome other MEMOIRS, of more curiofity than importance; for which we refer to the original publication.


Voyage Pittorefque de la Grece. Chap. VII. & VIII.-Travels through different parts of Greece, reprefented in a Series of Engravings, Jarge Folio, No. 7 and 8, Paris 1780 and 1781. [See our late Reviews and Appendixes.]


No. VII.

FTER the ifle of Rhodes, the little ifland of Symeo, whofe inhabitants, male and female, have carried the art of div ing farther than any other people, drew the curious attention of the Count de Choifeul G.-From thence he fet out in queft of antiquities for the Gulph of Macri, called, in times of old, Glaucus Sinus, which is reprefented in the fixty-third plate, the firft of this feventh number. Here he met with the ruins of Telmiffus, from which city the gulph of Macri was, alfo, formerly called Telmiffidus Sinus, as we learn from Livy and Lucan. The origin, however, of Telmiffus has efcaped all the researches of our learned Traveller; but the remains of a theatre, and the rich fragments of magnificent tombs, which he difcovered in its ruins, are proofs of its paft opulence and grandeur. These are reprefented in NINE feparate PLATES. The remains of the tombs (thofe fplendid monuments of fuperftition and vanity, fuppofed to give a kind of pre-eminence to the great even after death), are indeed magnificent. Several of their plans are fingular. The great Sarcophagus refembles an edifice built of wood; and it is well known what pains the ancients often took to give their tombs the forms of their houfes. In the marble urns that abound in Italy, it is easy to difcern the roof of a house with all its divifions; in fome alfo we fee the door fhut, in others half open, and in feveral, guarded by the genius of death; and, it is


more than probable, that the domus exilis Plutonia in Horace fignified the fepulchral monument. As the tombs of Persepolis bear a ftriking analogy to thofe of Telmiffus, our Author has given us the reprefentation of a tomb at Naxi-Ruftan, erected near the ruins of the former. These analogies, which are here the objects of a learned and ample difquifition, illustrate, no doubt, the hiftory of the arts, and the communications which they fuppofe, and which they produced between ancient nations.

The view, and the geometrical plans here exhibited, of the remains of the theatre of Telmiffus, are curious, well drawn, and like the rest of the work, perfect, as to the engraving. This theatre was formed on the declivity of a hill, in the fame manner as that of Bacchus at Athens, and, in general, all the Grecian theatres. It is built of a blue grey ftone exceedingly hard. All the circular part of the edifice, on which the fpectators were placed, is well preferved; but the extremities, which joined the profcenium, and were not fuftained by the ground, are totally detroyed. All this part, together with the ftage, is filled with rubbish, which renders the foundations inacceffible. The interior elevation of the ftage was divided by five gates, accompanied with pedestals on which probably columns or statues were placed. Under this elevation appear the void fpaces, defigned to receive the beams which fupported the ftage. Three paffages are alfo difcernible, which were under the ftage, and led to the orchestra.

By an allegorical print, which concludes this Number, the Author informs us, that none of the medals of Telmiffus, have escaped the ruins of time. In this compofition we fee the wafting power of time, confidered in its different modes or afpects. The PAST is represented under the figure of an aged man, leaning upon tombs and ruins; the PRESENT under that of a youth, who deftroys every thing by his rapid flight-and FUTURITY under the emblem of a winged infant, who whets his fcythe. The French have a peculiar talent at embellifhing trifles; but this is an ingenious decoration of—nothing.


PLATE LXXIII. exhibits a complete chart of the Author's voyage from the gulph of Macri to the Meander. His paffage through Caria gives him an opportunity of enlarging upon the history and antiquity of the Carians, and the different fovereigns under whofe domination they lived fucceffively. After many revolutions, their reduction into the form of a Roman province under Vefpafian, obliged them ever after to fhare the deftinies and fate of the Roman empire, until the confequences of the Croifades fubjected them to new bonds, and new tyrants, among

the Afiatics.

A large tree, the view of a village, and a groupe of figures, which reprefent his fellow-travellers, furnifh our Author with


the materials of his 74th plate, which exhibits his halt and reft
ing-place near the village of Dourlach in Caria. We hope he rest-
ed well, and that his pullets were tender; for they, and an otter,
are the only objects we meet with in this part of his pere-
grination. Why multiply plates without any vocation from
tafte, inftruction, or curiofity?

The 75th plate reprefents the reception which our noble Tra-
veller met with from Haffan Tchaoufch Oglou at Moglad, a city
raifed upon the ruins of Alinda. This old man had rendered
himself independent on the Ottoman Porte by his opulence and
courage, and acted the fovereign with spirit and capacity. The
converfation that paffed between him and our Traveller reads
well enough, when we have the handfome print of the Aga's
palace before us; it would lofe by being exhibited in scraps, and
we cannot afford room for the whole.

The Palace of the Aga of Efki-Hiffar is the fubject of the 76th
plate, and a very poor bufinets it is. The inconfiderable village
of Efki-Hiffar may have been (as Pocock and Chandler fuppofe)
the ancient Stratonicea, which was founded by the Macedonians,
and received its name from the Queen of Antiochus Soter; but
there are no veftiges remaining of its ancient temples mentioned
in hiftory, as dedicated to Hecate and Jupiter Chryfaoreus, where
all the cities of Caria fent, annually, deputies to offer facrifices
in common, and to regulate the general affairs of their confede-
rated republic.

The 77th plate reprefents a Turkish feftival, which resembles
a good deal the dances and merry-making of the Flemings in the
prints of Teniers, with this difference, that the drefs of the
Turks is more elegant, and the motions of the dancers more
violent than thofe of the phlegmatic inhabitants of the Auftrian

The 78th and 79th plates exhibit the remains of several an-
cient tombs and monuments; and the two following, which
conclude this Number, reprefent the ruins of Stratonicea; among
other fragments, are thofe of the theatre.

This Number is terminated by a drawing which recals to re-
membrance the misfortunes of Monimia, and exhibits fome me-
dals of the cities already mentioned. The medal of Alinda re-
prefents, on one fide, the head of Hercules, and, on the other,
his club and the lion's fkin. There are two medals alfo of Stra
tonicea, the figures and characters of which make us recollect the
games that were celebrated in that city: on the first, we see an
altar with the fire kindled between two torches-on the reverse,
an Athletic horfeman holding a fteed by the bridle. On the
fecond, there is a VICTORY holding a crown and a palm branch,
and on the reverfe, the name of Stratonicea inclosed in a crown
of laurel.

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