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When we drove up a little later, and Mayence under Prussian escort; Madame found the people still swaying under the at Brussels, with, it is said, the crowninfluence of some recent excitement, we jewels; the little prince, after his “bapasked the explanation. "C'est Jules tême de feu,” scouring over the country Favre qui embrasse Rochefort," was the with two physicians; Plon-plon at Na

Rochefort is a symbol, and ples, whither he fled as soon as war was possesses, in consequence, all the supe- declared. rior significance possessed by a symbol Oh, dethroned princess! Oh, captive over the reality. Carrying out the rad- monarch! Oh, wretched prince! The ical protest against the Empire made last day has gone by when the world will year by his election, the Deputies assem- weep tears over your hapless fate; when bled at the Hôtel de Ville immediately poets will choose your woeful bistory as placed him on the list of the Provisional theme for their tragedies; when painters Government. I will notice, in paren- will represent you, even on the back thesis, they have also had the good staircase of the Tnileries, where the sense not to include Thiers.

brush of Gros has fixed Louis Philippo But Rochefort was not the only sym- forever! For the strange, extraordinary, bol upon which the popular instinct fas- and, at first sight, almost inexplicable tened itself. All the signs and insignia circumstance in the affair, is the comof the Empire and the Emperor were pleteness with which every trace and attacked, the imperial eagles torn off vestige of imperial existence is swept the Hôtel de Ville, the multitudinous away. Since the beginning of the war, busts of the imperial family shivered in the Emperor has indeed faded out of fragments, the very signs of the tailors sight, but that is hardly since six weeks and other “Fournisseurs brevetés de ago. But as late as May, the Empire l'Empereur," broken in pieces. At one seemed in the full bloom of prosperity; establishment on the boulevard, where the plebiscite trick had succeeded bethe individual charged with the icono- yond expectation, and given the Bonaclasm had demolished the first half of parte dynasty an indefinite lease of life. the name, and there only remained-ereur, The war, even, in concentrating all the people, perceiving the pun, cried thoughts upon foreign danger, had out to leave it as it was.

hushed up for a moment the incessant The garden of the Tuileries was early warfare of the Opposition, and such as invaded, but no attempt made to enter persisted were forcibly suppressed by the palace. People contented them- the government. People submitted to selves with scrawling over the walls, every thing-the mobilization of the “Respect à la propriété, mort aux vo- Garde Mobile ; its incorporation in the leurs." “Vive la République.” And army; the loan of 750,000,000, covered all along the Rue de Rivoli was written in a single day; the establishment of an on the palace, “Logement à Louer.” Imperial cabinet; the dictature of PaliIn the sentry-box at the gate some one kao; the atrocious silence in which all had carried the joke still farther, and military operations were shrouded. Inwritten, “Parlez au concierge; chambre deed, if the French had had only a modbien meublée à louer.” Of course, the erate success—although the war was ungracious sovereign " had put for Bel- popular, although the majority regarded gium some time before. Her fanfaro- it as senseless and unjust-still, with nades of proclamations as Impératrice success, the Empire might have been Régente still decorate the dead walls of consolidated, and the proposed reckoning Paris, and the recollection of her dec. indefinitely adjourned. But, larations, “Si les Prussiens viennent, ils Cloche remarks this morning, “the capm'y trouveront,” remain to lend a pi- tivity of the Emperor is the liberty of quant contrast to the reality. The im- the country.” L'Empire s'est donné perial family has decidedly come to the sa démission. Not a blow has been grief it so well deserved-Monsieur at struck, hardly a protestation made or required, not an act of courage, or, alas! librium that can always be upset in the I fear that it would nít have been forth- twinkling of an eye. It is like an incoming. But the whole gigantic humo verted pyramid, whose superficial exbug dissolved, melted away-eaten out panse only serves to conceal the narrow and out by its own rottenness. “Je base upon which it reposes. Indeed, n'ai aucune commande à l'armée," said the main thing which excites uneasiness the Emperor. Vous n'avons aucune after the joy of the 4th of September, is proposition à faire,” avow the minis- its resemblance, in suddenness of transiters.

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tion, to the 18 Brumaire, the 24 FéI am forcibly reminded of the famous vrier, and the 2 Decembre. story of Edgar Poe, concerning a man But in no other respect does it resemwho was mesmerized at the point of ble these famous days. Never was so death, in such a manner that his soul great a revolution accomplished in so could not escape from his dead body. absolutely pacific a manner. I repeat, The corpse, on the other hand, could it was less a revolution than a declaranot decay as long as any soul remained tion of what really existed; and as the entangled in its meshes, and stayed, French boast, such a change of front, therefore, in an intermediate condition made under fire of the enemy, is almost between life and death, for three years. as sublime in its boldness as in the elecAt the end of this time the mesmerizer tric shock that it has given to the panicreversed his passes. The spell was brok- stricken people. en; with an immense sigh of relief, the Panic! It is not dreamed of. The soul shook itself free of its charnelPrussians are at Soissons — more insohouse, and at the same moment the body lent than ever. Already they dictate tumbled into a liquid mass of putrefac- terms of peace from Berlin. Already are tion.

anticipated cries of rage, both from GerIn the same way one might say that a many and England, at the proclamation spell had been broken which bound of a republic that will call into life the France to the Empire. The living soul republics of Spain and Italy, to form a escapes--free-the Empire melts away sanitary cordon of Latin democracy that of itself. It is extremely important to shall hem in the boasted Teutonic civilunderstand this, so as not to be the dupe ization-stronghold of feudalism. of the amiable sneers which will pres. But whatever the danger, men feel ently circulate: “ Oh yes, the French that they live—that they are men. “Unnever are satisfied with their government. til now I cared little for our disasters," Four months ago they voted for it with said the interne this morning. "What acclamation, and now they want a re- did it signify-a province more or less public again. They are not fit for a re- to the Empire? But now that the honpublic.” This is most superficial non- or of the Republic is concerned, I am sense, as is shown by the very simple aroused to the gravity of our military consideration that it is not the same situation." “ Until now," said another people who change, but two parties, who medical student, “I have done my best have constantly been at war with each to evade being called to the army; but other, and who have alternately obtained to-day I have enrolled myself - for I the power. The seven and one half shall be a soldier of the Republic." millions who voted for the plebiscite will The same feeling animated the bonlecertainly do nothing for the revolution, vards all night, where the Marseillaise but the million and a half who voted and cries of Vive la République certainagainst it are quite capable of the task, ly did not cease till two o'clock in the and also of cowing into subjection the morning. (We were on the boulevard great mass of inertia that is flung like till midnight.) One man said: "Je ballast from hand to hand, Any

state n'aime pas la Marseillaise, depuis qu'il a of society whose stability reposes on an été souilli dans le service de l'Empire, army is in a condition of unstable equi- mieux vaut le chant de Départ:


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“La république nous appelle,

neutrals, of all shades, from the serSachons nous battre au périrUn Français doit vivre pour elle,

geants de ville to the National Guard and Pour elle un Français doit mourir." the bourgeois, and in part by the utter

suppression of such solid sterling bourWhen we returned home last evening, geois as had supported the Empire, and the concierge and his wife stood at the hated the Republic, but in the moment door to greet us.

of consternation do not dare to say any “Sommes nous aussi des Républi- thing. One could see their faces here cains?” they cried, holding out their and there on the boulevards yesterday hands to us as Americans.

-cold and sneering rather than sour or The door was opened by an old Re provoked. Scepticism is always publican friend of the family. "Nous Frenchman's refuge. I was furious this l'avons, nous l'avons!” he exclaimed. morning, at the hospital, under charge of At the same moment E. R. arrived; the P-to sce the frigidity with which two men rushed into each other's arms. he received the enthusiasm of the Ah quelle belle journée! Nous l'avons interne who had helped to force the la République !"_"Oui, maintenant il Tuileries yesterday, of the externe who s'agit de la garder.”

enrolls as a " soldier of the Republic" It is this feeling of tenderness, of affec- to-day. " This is the second Republic I tion, with which the Republic is wel- have seen," he remarked, and busied comed, that is most touching. A lost himself with some miserable details, afideal refound; no, it is more personal- fecting to ignore the whole matter. it is the exultation of a lover who finds I do not wonder that such men as his long-lost mistress; and, absorbed in Rare furious against the savants, delighted contemplation of her beauty, and corps médical, who as a body asforgets to think even of the futnre that sume just this rôle-sneering; accepting, she brings back with her. It is this that fighting for all the solid crumbs of materendered the manifestation yesterday so rial comfort that the powers that be can singularly joyful. No one seemed to place at their disposition, but whenever care much whether or no the Republic it is question of the people, treating could really repulse the invasion that thern as “insensés," "hair-brained,” the Empire had called down on their "animés d'un mauvais esprit.” heads. A lady passed in a carriage on No; fraternity cannot be universal. It tbe Place de la Concorde, and cried, is the church militant that has to defend “ À tas la Prusse !” but nobody paid truth; and the life of every person who any attention to her.

cares about truth must be one of inThis appreciation of Beauty—this cessant warfare. He must learn to renperfectly developed self-consciousness der hate for hate, contempt for conwhich enables each individual in mass tempt; to keep his back and knees stiff to seize the character of the ensemble, and his head upright-proud, inflexible, (I heard several people say to-day, "ah, uncompromising. Then, perhaps, in the n'avons nous pas été beaux hier!”)— course of his life-time may come to him gives a French crowd and a French one such day of perfect, unalloyed trirevolution a physiognomy entirely dif- umph as yesterday. ferent from that possible in our colder Such days, in wbich a people lives, in northern races.

It indicates their rôle which individual lives are absorbed into in the Etats-Unis of Europe for which the - a Social Being that for a moment lias bepresent war-started in the interest of come conscious of itself-such moments a parvenu dynasty, and carried on in realize the old conceptions of ecstacy the interests of a military feudalism- among the Neo-Platonists. It is the life seems really destined to pave the way. of Humanity that is the Infinite; it is

This unanimity of the crowd is ex- the mysterious progress of Ideas that we plained in part by the enthusiasm com- understand by the “workings of Provimunicated by the republicans to the dence; " it is the unerring exactitude of moral retribution for good or for evil, his pockets as comfortably as possible by for true or for false, for sham or for every windfall that lack or Providence reality,—which represent the recom- may throw in his way!

Such creapense

of heaven and hell. The tremen- tures deserve to be cast out to wither, dous importance of ideas! the ouly reali- severed from the deep, fruitful life of ty behind the shifting phenomena of ex- Humanity like a branclı cut off from a istence-how is it possible to live thirty vine. years in the world and not have learned I have written this long letter “d'un it ? And yet how few there are who seul coup," because I thought you would trouble themselves about such "abstract like to hear from an eye-witness how the questions," who do not consider the Republic was proclaimed in Paris on whole duty of man to consist in raising the 4th of September, 1870. bis family in material comfort and lining

Your affectionate



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happy and advancing people. But his THERE is a great lesson to be learned imagination was smitten by the dazzle from the present war-a lesson of the of dynastic glory. He wanted to be an day, and yet the lesson of six thousand emperor, and to transmit the imperial years. It is, that he who sows the wind dignity to his descendants; and, with shall reap the whirlwind. The man or that unhallowed purpose, «he violated the nation that worships wrong, shall his oaths, destroyed the constitution of be by that same wrong overthrown. his country, butchered his fellow-citiNapoleon III won his throne by treach- zens in the streets or sent them into ery and bloodshed; he has lost it by a exile, and for eighteen years maintenfold treachery and a tenfold blood- tained his ill-gotten power by corrupt shed. The French people allowed favoritism and the force of bayonets. themselves to be duped by his frauds His crime was seemingly triumphant. and cajoleries, and now they are pay- The nations cried out, “Io Napoleon, ing the penalty of their want of manli- the great warrior and statesman ! ” ness and self-respect. They did not when, suddenly, the hour of trial camo have the courage to meet and cast off -a trial provoked by his own precipithe seducer, when he came with his tate and arrogant ambition and the specious promises of order, prosperity, entire fabric he had so carefully reared and glory; and now, when he has fell to pieces as the rottenest of strucbrought them before an earnest foreign tures. The favorites whom he had nourenemy, they must have courage, or die. ished by corruption, were as treacherous

Louis Napoleon, as President of the towards him as he had been treacherFrench Republic, might have lifted his ous towards his country. Those swords country to a pinnacle of moral prosper- in which he had trusted were swords of ity and grandeur that the nation had lath, and those armies, armies of pastenever before reached. He might have board and shoddy. All his subordi. trained his countrymen, weary of revo- nates had but too well learned the leslutions and suffering under the woes of son he had taught, but too well copied long civil wars, to a respect for law and the example he had set. A single eara love of peaceful industry which would nest campaign snuffs out his pretenhave given their fertile and elegant ge- sions; he falls without a regret, covnius an easy mastery of modern civili. ered by disgrace and contempt, and the zation. He would have retired, then, unmeasured ridicule of the world. in due time, from the seats of power, And the French people acquiesced in blessed by the gratitude and love of a his crimes; they approved, by their votes, the criminal means by which he —not even Naples—that may be comhad attained power ; they approved his pared with our own; and yet there is violations of law, of right, of sound no city in Europe in which it is not on principle, and they applauded his mon- many accounts much pleasanter, for strous egotism, his theatrical falsehoods, those who have means, to live. The his vaiu and foolish schemes of a mate- greater efficiency of the domestic serrial splendor, to be bought at the cost vice, the superior convenience and econof their moral integrity; and now they omy of the apartment-house, and the reap the reward.

In desolation and provision of cheaper amusements for all anguish, their fields trampled by invad- classes, would alone account for the difing hordes, their cities battered to the ference. But there is another cause ground, their proud capital, the centre even still more potent, and that is, the of the world's admiration, isolated, be- absence of that rowdy element which sieged, paralyzed, running with blood, in New York would appear to have they have come to the end of that gotten almost the upper band. Elseheartless imperialism which they not where, the roughs, as they are called, only allowed, but embraced ! Our have a salutary fear of the police; or, hearts weep for their sufferings, their if not of the police, of that self-respect humiliations, and their deceptions. We and courage wbich prompts a gentlewould that we could lift them out of man to chastise insolence and rudeness this valley of the shadow of death ; on the spot. But here the roughs care but, faithless as they have been to the little for the police, from the grasp of glorious inspirations of '89—the most which they are so easily released by glorious that were ever vouchsafed to political favor, and still less for the betman--forgetful as they have been of ter sort of people, who are too cowardthe frontal and primary truth of human ly to resent insult and aggression. We equality and human rights, which they have seen a single drunken loafer disthemselves proclaimed with a sublimity turb a whole car-load or steamboatful of devotion and self-sacrifice never sur- of his superiors, wit out a single foot passed, they must needs bear the bur- being lifted or a single hand raised to den of their wrong, till Providence punish his intrusions. A few reckless shall bring release. We, too, like boys will frighten an entire neighborthem, forgot the principles in which hood out of its quiet and propriety, we were born ; we thought that cotton and not a man call them to account. was greater than manhood, till four years The habit of wearing concealed weapof strife and suffering brought us to our ons, which is common among these mis

Justice in the relations of men, creants, is doubtless a principal cause the recognition by each of the rights of the timidity of those they assail. of all, is the supreme law of life ; and Few men care to risk their lives in when we do not willingly confess it in order to put down a street-broil; but our hearts, it will only the more em- so long as this feeling prevails, the outphatically assert its claims by the whirl- rages will continue. Indeed, we see no wind and the tempest.

probable end to them, until the more peaceable part of the community, in

the absence of a vigorous enforcement One of the morning prints publishes of the law, take the law into their own a strong protest against the practice of bands, and, like the famous Committee going abroad to spend their money, in of San Francisco, years ago, expel all which so many well-to-do American known rascals under penalty of the families indulge. But all the protests rope. It is a desperate resort, we adin the world will not hinder it, so long mit; but the case is quite as desperate, as New York, the metropolis, remains or will be so, unless our public man what it is. In local position and cir- ners take in some way a decided turn cumstance, there is no city in Europe for the better.

VOL. VI.-36



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