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deceased will not be able to wreak their means, in plain language, “Send me my vengeance and protect others from å trunk.” Mr. Yup complies with the relike misfortune. When John is con- quest, and responds by telegraph, "Me vinced that the foreign innovation harms you trunkee you sendee." His English nobody, and is an excellent medium of is more Californian and less Cantonese communication, he will be not only than that of his Sacramento friend. willing, but anxious to extend its ben- Canton throws in the word "piecee" efits through the whole length and (piece) very often, and the same is the breadth of The Middle Kingdom, and case with the Chinese-English spoken connect the interior and seaboard cities in most of the treaty ports. The inby means of the electric wire.*

ventor of pigeon-English is unknown, The foreign houses established in and it is well for his name that it has China will furnish a large patronage for not been handed down; he deserves the the telegraph when completed, and execration of all who are compelled to their example will be an excellent one use the legacy he has left; and it is for the native merchants, and especially proper to say that he has received a those who compete directly with the great many epithets, the reverse of revforeigners. In California, the Chinese erent, from irate English and Ameriresidents make a liberal use of the tele- cans. It is just as difficult for a Chinese graph; though they do not trouble to learn pigeon-English as it would be themselves with an investigation of its to learn pure and honest English, and it workings, they fully appreciate its im- is about as intelligible as Greek or Sanportance, and when a message is retard- scrit to a newly-arrived foreigner. In ed from any cause, they are as ready as Shanghae or Hong Kong, say to your their paler-faced competitors to make Chinese ma-foo, who claims to speak complaint and demand the reason for English, “ Bring me a glass of water," delay. In California all messages must and he will not understand you. Rebe sent in English, or at all events in peat your order in those words, and he English characters. Grammatical pre- stands dumb and uncomprehending, as cision is not insisted upon; if it were, though you had spoken the dialect of it is possible many a native-born Ameri- the moon.

But if you say, can would find his telegrams refused by me catchee bring one piecee glass water; the receiving clerks on account of de- savey," and his tawny face beams intelficiencies of style. John, in California, ligence as he moves to obey the order. is at liberty to send his messages in In the phrase, "pigeon-English," the

pigeon-English,” and very funny work word pigeon means “ business," and the he makes of it occasionally. Cbin expression would be more intelligible if Lung, in Sacramento, telegraphs to it were “business-English.” Many of Ming Yup, in San Francisco, “You the foreigners living in China have me send one piecee me trunk,” which formed the habit of using this and

other words in their Chinese sense, and The proposed telegraph-line has an aggregate

sometimes one hears an affair of busi. length of nine hundred miles, connecting the follow- ness called “a pigeon.” A gentleman, .ng cities :


whom the writer met in China, used to Population. in Miles. tell, with a great deal of humor, his 1,000,000

early experiences with the language.

60,000 " Hong Kong.

“When I went to Shanghae," said he,

250,000 « Swatow..


“I had an introduction to a prominent “ Amoy..


merchant, who received me very kindly, 16 Foo-Chow.

1,250,000 " Wau-Chu...


and urged me to call often at, his office. " Ningpo.....


A day or two later I called, and in“ Hangtchean..


quired for him. Won't be back for a “ Shanghae.....


week or two,' said the clerk; "he has Total........... 5,910,000

gone into the country, about two hun

“ You go

From Canton...
To Macao....

70 75 130 115 120 120 125 60 80


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dred miles, after a little pigeon.' I ing in China. The principle is the same asked no questions, but as I bowed my- as that which Mr. Bain attempted to self out, I thought, “ He must be a fool, introduce in America, some years ago, indeed, and I was all wrong when I but did not find practicable; its want suposed him a sensible man. Go two of success in Mr. Bain's hands was due hundred miles into the country after a to the slight demand for autographic pigeon, and a little one at that! He despatches rather than to any defects has lost his senses, if he ever possessed of the system.

Could a native of China, or of any Of course it will be necessary, in other country in the world, fail to acChina, to use, in part at least, the lan- knowledge the power and importance guage of the country in transmitting of the telegraph, when he receives in a telegrams. As the Chinese written lan- few moments a letter in his own language contains thousands of characters guage, and in the familiar chirography -linguists do not agree as to the exact of a friend a hundred or a thousand number-it will not be possible to make miles away? His wonder and respect separate telegraphic signal for each would be greatly increased if the intelcharacter. Some of the missionaries ligence was borne to him beneath the and others who have lived long in waters and by no visible pathway. China have endeavored to reduce those Apart from its value as a financial characters to symbols; a French sarant speculation, the enterprise of supplying claims to have arranged two hundred a telegraph system to China has a great symbols, that comprise the written lan- national importance. The gift of the guage of China, while Dr. Macgowan, youngest nation to the oldest is, comformerly in the service of The East India mercially and socially, important, as well Telegraph Company-is the author of a as politically and evangelically. In system using less than twenty. Both commerce, it will serve to make more these gentlemen are confident of their intimate the relations of the two counability to apply their inventions to the tries, and will fitly succeed the estabpractical working of the telegraph ; at lishment of a steam-line from California any rate, they will soon have the oppor- to the Chinese coast, and the completion tunity of making the experiment. Most of our great national undertaking-the of the business along the coast-line and Pacific Railway. Socially, it will awabetween the treaty-ports will be trans- ken sympathies between two people, acted in English, by means of the ordi- whose language, customs, and modes nary apparatus, which will also be of daily life are strange and almost inavailable for the symbolic methods. comprehensible to each other. PolitiProbably it will be more satisfactory to cally, it will serve as a bond of peace the Chinese to receive despatches, not and good will, and as time goes by and only in the exact language, but in the the nations become more intimate, will handwriting of the sender. This can render of little moment the diplomat be done by the Lenoir method-a and the warriors who too often accomFrench invention-and also by that of pany him. Evangelically, it will make an Italian, whose name now escapes

more welcome the missionaries from a me. The French method is less cumber- land that first brought the telegraph some and works with greater rapidity into practical use, and will facilitate than the Italian one, and will probably their labors in the proportion that it be adopted for autographic telegraph- creates a kindly regard for America.



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1868. younglings who have gone each to a MY DEAR DAUGHTER : You ask me special toil, and what wonder if she what I think of the modesty and sense finds it hard to realize that she is unfitof a woman who can insist, in these ted either by nature or education for days, that she is not sufficiently cared the work of law making, on a broader for in public and in private, and who and larger scale than she has ever yet wishes to add the duties of a politician tried. to those of a mother and housekeeper. Her youngest boy, the privileged,

This is a large question to ask, and a saucy one of the crowd, has just attainstill larger one to answer by letter; but ed his majority, we will say, and desince you have a clear and thoughtful claims in her hearing on the incom. . head of your own, and we are widely petence of women to vote—the supeseparated just now and unable to con- riority of the masculine element in poliverse together as in times past, I will tics, and the danger to society if womsee what can be said by pen and paper en are not carefully guarded from confor just the woman you have described. tact with its rougher elements—and I

And let me begin by asking you the seem to see her quiet smile and slightly meaning of the word politician. Hav- curling lip, while in memory she runs ing consulted your dictionary, you reply, back to the years when said stripling “ One who is versed in the science of gathered all he knew of laws, country, government and the art of governing.” home, heaven, and earth, at her kneeVery well. Now who is thus versed in " and as for soiling contacts, oh! my the science and art of governing, so far son, who taught you to avoid these, and as the family is concerned, more than first put it into your curly little head, the mother of it? In this country, that evil communications corrupt good certainly, the manners, the habits, the manners, and that a man cannot touch laws of a household, are determined in pitch, except he be defiled.” great part by the mother; so much so, I have taken the bull by the horns, that when we see lying and disobedient you perceive, in thus taking our mother children, or coarse, untidy, and ill- from her quiet country home and setmannered ones, we instinctively make ting her by imagination among the our comments on the mother of that legislators of the land ;-but it is just brood, and declare her more or less as well, because the practical end of incompetent to her place.

suffrage is, not eligibility to office merely, Now let me suppose her to be one of but a larger use of this privilege than the competent ones who, like your Aunt most women have ever yet dreamed of, E., has helped six stout boys and four much less desired. of their quick-witted sisters all the way I hope, by the way, that you have not from babyhood up to manhood and forgotten the unanswerable argument .womanhood, with a wisdom and gentle- of Mr. Attorney General Bates on ness and patience that have been the “ What constitutes the citizen," which wonder of all beholders—and let us we read together some years since. If think of her as sitting down now in her it is not fresh in your mind, please read half-forsaken nest, calm, thoughtful, and it again, because no woman ought to be matured, but fresh in her feeling as ignorant or unmindful of her relations cver she was, and stretching out by her to her government, nor of her rights and syropathies in many directions after the duties under it, in times like these,

especially, when our country is forming tory: the institution self-supporting by itself anew, as it were, and needs all the a system of rigid tasks, or partially supwisdom and strength she can gather ported by the State ? what punishment from every quarter.

shall be allowed, what religious and And now she is there,

we will


in moral instruction furnished, and what the legislature of our State--a high- sanitary regulations enforced? The prominded, well-bred woman; one who, hibitory law-has it proved itself amid all her cares, has never failed to adapted to the suppression of intemread the newspapers more or less, and perance ? are its provisions enforced, to keep alive her interest in the pros- and why not? Is a special license law perity of her country, whatever the better adapted to the desired end, or claims of her numerous family. She is is there any thing which human ingeone, too, who has not had the assistance nuity can devise that shall arrest the of wealth in doing all this; she is, as spread of intemperance over the land ? you know, straight from the rural dis. The school for juvenile offenders—is tricts, a genuine farmer's wife. But she that managed judiciously? Here obhas more leisure now than she once had, viously the great aim should be reforand with it there comes a longing for mation. Is a system of rewards or punchange, for more cultivated society, for ishments, or both together, best adapted recreations and diversions such as her to that end? Should boys and girls be busy hours have seldom afforded her; associated in the same buildings and and just now, by the unanimous vote classes, and for what length of time of her townspeople, she is sent to our should they be retained for improveglorious old Hub, to spend the winter ment before sending them out again in considering what the Commonwealth into society ? Endowments for colleges of Massachusetts shall do this year, by and other educational institutions suplegislation, for the public good.

ported in whole or in part by the State: She enjoys right well the prospect of Shall these be confined to institutions ten or twelve weeks spent at the me- designed exclusively, for men, or shall tropolis, where she may refresh herself, they be applied equally to the educain the intervals of business, by the tion of both sexes ? Taxation-how music of the Great Organ, and where apportioned? What interests can best she may command libraries and means bear heavy taxation, and is any further of culture hitherto quite beyond her legislation needed to secure the right reach, and in whose busy life she may of representation to all who are taxed ? study human character and human ac- Prostitution-shall it be licensed as in tivities under new aspects, which are of the old countries, or left to itself, or great interest to her matured and subjected to severe penalties ? Divorces thoughtful mind.

-- by whom granted, and for what cause, Having secured a home not far from and upon what conditions ? Common the old State House, she seeks the As- schools, and high schools, and the sembly Room and meets there gentle whole system of State education; inmen from all parts of the State-far- sane asylums, poor-houses, jails, and mers, merchants and mechanics, phy- many other institutions of modern civsicians, teachers and ministers, lawyers ilization :-in all these objects, you will and bankers, and they go into debate perceive, our mother a deep and on such questions as these : Shall our intelligent interest, and it is not diffideaf mutes be educated at home, or in cult to imagine the warm, even enthuthe Institution at Hartford, as hereto- siastic energy with which she will give fore? What of the economies of our herself to the discussion of the ques past practice, and are there better tions involved—some of them the highmethods of training than those insti- est that can come before a human trituted there? State Prison-shall the bunal. discipline be penal merely, or reforma- If you say, There are other State in

terests with which she is less familiar, whole city full of Parisian women, who I reply, No one legislator understands have for years demonstrated that the the detail of all the business that comes delicious feminine graces, which the before the House, or is expected to; world of men are so fearful of losing, committees are appointed for speciali- are in no danger of being driven out ties, as you know, and composed, or by the practice of honest industries. they ought to be, of those whose edu- On the whole, then, my dear, you cation and training have fitted them for begin to perceive that my mind receives that special investigation,

no shock when I am charged with the Our mother will have her hands full crime of desiring to meddle with poliif she should serve on the Committee of tics, and to educate my daughters as Charitable Institutions alone; and none well as my sons to take an intelligent, can do better service there than such a and, if need be, an active part in the wise, prudent, affectionate care-taker as government of their country; though I she has ever been. And I could name begin to fear, since the receipt of your to you one lady who might be called to letter, that my efforts in your behalf sit on the Judiciary Committee, and have not been crowned with the success help to frame and modify the laws I had much reason to hope. However, without discredit to herself or to the there is a gallant young husband in the Committee. She is Miss W. of - of case now, and I am very much mistaken whom you have heard your father speak if this is not the chief cause of your as a well-read lawyer, and the very able present difficulty; so I wish to say furoffice partner of her father, Judge ther, that I owe my young son-in-law no W- -; and there is many a woman grudge whatever for this counter in now-a-days whose counsel in the matter fluence, nor do I abate one jot my confiof framing laws ought not to be de- dence in him as a man of intelligence, spised. She need not necessarily perfect integrity, and true nobility. The truth herself in the technicalities of a legal is, that one chief reason why your huseducation, though some would like well band, and so many like him, oppose the to do that, no doubt; professional gen- extension of suffrage is, that their sense tlemen are generally called upon now of true gallantry, their desire to shield by committees at their need; but she and protect, is violated by their concepcan bring a clear, practical, and ex- tion of the probable result of a woman's perienced head and sound heart to the going to the polls. This is certainly a help of many a vexed question. And misconception. Every woman knows as to railroad bills and management, in her own heart that she does not hold would that she might have a voice her purity and delicacy subject to inthere; you may be sure that all charters jury by such cause. We know that we would contain provisions for the com- have never entered any precinct, howfort and safety of passengers, and the ever vile and debased, without carrying holding of all officials to a strict re- something of that God-given power of sponsibility for neglect of duty.

womanhood-of motherhood--with us, And so in all matters pertaining to which is a greater protection against merchandise and business, which fairly insult and contamination than all the come under state jurisdiction; it is late shields that man can devise. But we in the day to assert that women know ought not to blame men too severely for nothing of these things, and could not their reluctance to relinquish this office learn if they should try. There are too of protector and guardian, which cusmany honest and successful women- tom has so long laid upon them as a traders, artists, and littérateurs in every high duty and privilege. city of the land, and too many men In the days when physical forces' dependent in whole or in part upon ried the world, men might naturally their earnings, to give a show of color offer, and women receive with thankful. to such assertions--to say nothing of a ness, the protection of a strong arm,

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