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Mecca. In the Greek version of Simeon whieh huntsmen were constantly resortSeth, on the other hand, he has become ing. Now there was in this place a a decided monk or hermit; to accommo-. tree with numerous limbs, and thick date him ablutions are turned into covering leaves, and in this tree a raven penance, and sometimes the translator had his nest. It happened then, one renders Arabic phrases by literal quota- day, as the raven was settling into his tions from the Scriptures. Not content nest, that, lo and behold, a huntsman with this, Simeon Seth sometimes makes made his appearance. A vile-looking all the animals talk Homerically, and fellow he was, and of most evil intent. parodies, in this way, entire hexameters On his shoulder he carried his net and from the Iliad or the Odyssey. In the in his hand a staff. As he drew nigh story here given, however, there are no the tree, the raven was terribly frightdecidedly religious characters; they are ened. Surely, said he, this man comes animals purely natural, unsophisticated, bere for my destruction, or the destrucunindoctrinated, and presenting only tion of my neiglibors; and so I will an amiable and natural morality. It is remain quietly in my place, until I see selected for its purity of diction, its what he is about. Then the huntsman beautiful simplicity of narration, and fixed his net, and when he had spread as having a convenient measure of ex- the grain upon it, and hid himself close tent between the longer and the shorter by, he had to wait but a very short pieces.

time, when, lo and behold, there passed The translation from the Arabic is by a dove called the ring-dove, and with made as idiomatic and as colloquial as her a great many other doves. As possible, whilst, at the same time, faith- neither she nor her companions saw the ful to the spirit of the words as well as net, they fell upon the grain, and began to the exact truth of the thought. It to pick it up, when suddenly the net is entitled,

closed and had them all as fast as a

locked door. The huntsman was comBAB ALIIAMAMAT ALMOTAWWAKAT, ing up with great joy, when all the

doves began to struggle in the cords, that is,

each one seeking only his own freedom. Hold, said the ring-dove; do not thus

defeat your own effort, by being each Said Dabschelim, the king, to Bidpai one of you more concerned for himself the philosopher: I have heard from than for his neighbor; but let us all you the story of the two friends, and help, and all pull together upon the how a liar made division between them, net, and we shall every one escape. and all how the matter ended ; now tell Then they all pulled together, each one me, if you know any story of the kind, helping the other, and up they went about true and constant friends, and into the air, net and all. The huntshow their friendship commenced, and man, however, did not despair of catchhow they mutually helped each other. ing them ; for he thought that they Said the philosopher, The truly wise would only go a short distance before man will regard nothing as of equal dropping down. Now, says the raven, account with friends; for they are help- will I follow on and see wbat becomes ers in prosperity, and consolers in ad- of these fellows. Just then the ringversity; and among the histories to this dove turned short round, and saw thu effect is that of the ring-dove, and the huntsman following. Here he comes, field-mouse, and the deer, and the raven. said she; he is close after us. Now How was that ? said the king. They if we take the way of the open counsay, said Bidpai, that in the land of try, it will be impossible for us to Sakawindajina there was a certain city escape his eye, and he will keep right by the name of Daher, and near that on in pursuit; but if we go the way of city a place abounding in game, to the fields and forests, he will lose sight



of us and turn back. There is a' cer- between us, replied the mouse; for one tain place where lives a field-mouse, a who is wise should only seek that for very dear friend of mine, and if we can which nature has made a way, and ever only reach it, he will gnaw the net for avoid the contrary. Now, you are a us. They followed the advice, and the devourer, and I am your meat; there huntsman turned back in despair ; but can be no true friendship between us. the raven followed on. When the ring- Not so, said the raven; though the dove found that they had come to the mouse is my meat, as you say, I could place of the field-mouse, she bid them never have any satisfaction in eating settle down. Now the mouse had a you. Your friendship is all the more great many holes as places of refuge in dear to me notwithstanding what you dangerous times; and when the dove have said ; and when I thus seek it, called him by name—for his name was you ought not to repel me. There is Zirak-he answered her from one of something so good and clever about you, these holes. Who are you, and where that I cannot help loving you; you are do you come from? I am your friend, so modest, too, and make so little show said the ring-dove. Then the mouse of your merits. But surely one who is came up very promptly. What brought wise should not seek to hide his exyou into this trouble ? said he. Don't cellency; for virtue is like musk; conyou know, said the dove, that nothing ceal it as you will, nothing can prevent befalls one, whether of good or of evil, the spread of its fragrant odor. Be except by the decree of the Fates that as it may, said the mouse, there is That is what brought us into this trou- no stronger enmity than that of nature, ble; for there is no escaping the Fates, and of this there are two kinds. One either for great or small; even the sun of them is the mutual, such as that suffers eclipse, and the moon, too, when which exists between the lion and the the Fates have so decreed for them. elephant; for sometimes the lion kills Then the mouse began to cut the knot the elephant, and sometimes the elewhich was near the ring-dove, when phant kills the lion ; the other is the the latter cried out, Begin with the one-sided enmity, such as that which others, and after that come to me. exists between nie and the cat, or beThis she had to repeat many times be- tween me and thee; for it never hurts fore the mouse paid any attention to it. you, whilst the pain and damage ever Why, how is this, he said at last, that return to me. It is like water; make you seem to have no pity or care for it ever so hot, that does not prevent its yourself?. Says the ring-dove, I fear quenching the fire. He who has such lest, if you begin with me, you may be- an enemy, and rashly comes to terms come weary, and give up before doing with him, is like a man who carries a it for the rest; whilst I know very well serpent in his sleeve; and one who is that, should you be ever so tired, you wise will, of all things, avoid every apwould never leave me in the net. Ah, proach to familiarity with a shrewd said the mouse, that is the very thing and crafty foe. I understand you, said that makes me love you so. Then he the raven ; yet such is the goodness of went on with his work until he had your disposition, that you ought to finished it all, when out went the dove perceive the sincerity of my words, and and all her companions with her. not be hard upon me, or say that there

Now the raven had watched this pro- can be no friendship between us; for ceeding of the mouse, and it produced the wise seek not recompense for kindin him a great desire for his friendship ness, and friendship with the virtuous and further acquaintance. So he called, is quick to form, slow to break. It is Mousy! Mousy! until out came the like a golden pitcher, hard to fracture, little head. What do you want? said and easy to be repaired should it get a the mouse. Your friendship and ac- dent or a bruise. So, too, the friendquaintance, said he. There can be none ships of the bad are quick to break,

will go

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slow to form ; resembling in this the Should there be such a one, I could
earthen pitcher, easy to crack with the very easily cut his acquaintance.
slightest injury, and then past all mend- Then went forth the field-mouse to
ing. The noble love the noble; the the raven, and they gave each other the
vile love no one except in appearance, hand, and pledged a pure friendship.
through desire of gain or fear of harm. They became, too, very familiar with
But I have need of thy love and kind- each other, and after some time had
ness, because thou art generous, and I passed, says the raven to the mouse,
stand at thy gate resolved to take no You live too near the roadside, and I
food until you receive me as a friend am afraid that some of the boys may
and brother. Said the field-mouse, I hit you with stones; but if you
accept your brotherhood, for I can with me, I know of a very retired place,
repel no one from his urgent need ; but where lives one of the tortoise family, a
I began this talk, as I did, that I might very good friend of mine, who feeds on
assure myself in acting prudently, and ish, and where we, too, will find every
that you might never have it to say, thing we may want to eat. Suppose
should you do me harm, that you found that I take you along, that we may live
the mouse quick to be deceived. Then there in all security. There is one thing
he went out of his inner hole and stood I have not mentioned, says the mouse;
by the ertrance. What hinders you I know a good many curious stories
from coming clear out ? said the raven; that you will be delighted to hear
and why do you not treat me with when we get to that quiet place; so
more familiarity ? Have you some take me along, and I will do whatever
doubt remaining, after all? There are

you may wish.

Then the raven took two things, said the mouse, in respect up the field-mouse by the tail, and flew to which the people of the world with him until they reached the spot. mutually give and take, and hold When they came to the spring where friendly intercourse. These are the the tortoise lived, she looked out from soul and the hand. Some give to each the water, and behold! the raven carryother of their souls; these are the real ing the mouse by the tail. Not seeing, hearty friends, pure and true. Those at first, that it was her friend, she was who give of the hand only, they are, greatly frightened at so strange a sight. indeed, helpers to each other, yet do

Then the raven called to her; upon they desire, each one, their own profit. which she went out, and asked him, Now he who acts on these worldly What is the matter, and where do you principles of gain, is like the huntsman come from? So he told her the whole who spreads grain for the birds, with story-how he had followed the doves, no desire for any good of the birds, but and the matter of the field-mouse, and all for his own. But the giving of the all about it until they came to that soul gocs far beyond the giving of the very place. When the tortoise had hand, and that is what I have ventured heard the whole affair, she greatly to do to thee; I have given to thee my admired the good sense and integrity very soul-my life. Nothing now pre- of the raven's little friend, and after she vents my going wholly out, but one had courteously saluted him, began to thought that occurs to me. You know ask him many questions about his comvery well that you have companions, ing there. Now, says the raven to the other ravens, of a nature like your own, mouse, since we are in this quiet place, but without your thought and purpose; it is a good time to tell us some of I am afraid of them. But, said the those stories you spoke of, besides anraven, surely it is a sign of friendship swering the questions the tortoise has that one should be a friend to his put to you concerning the events of your friend's friend, and a foe to his friend's life; for she stands to you the same as I. foc; and there is no friend of mine, I Then the mouse began as follows: One am certain, who will not love you. of the first things in my experience was

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my living in the house of a very pious woman. What business, replied she, man who led a recluse life, with no have you to give such an invitation, family or servants about him, and who when there is hardly enough in the had every day given to him a basket house for your own family? You know, of provisions. Of this he would eat too, that you are one who never lays up what he wanted, and hang up the any thing. Don't trouble yourself about remainder. I used to watch the recluse that, says the man; we will just give until he went out, when I would leap them what we have. As for this laying up to the basket, and eat away until I up that you talk of, no good comes of had devoured what was in it, except it; it is very apt to turn out as it did what I threw down to the other mice with the saving wolf. How was that ? who had gathered round. Many a time said the wife. They say, replied the did the hermit do his best to hang the man,* that once upon a time a huntsbasket out of my reach, but never suc- man went out with his bow and arrows, ceeded, until once upon a time a travel- and had not gone far before he sh ling guest asked lodging for the night, gazelle. He laid it upon his shoulders, when they two sat down and ate their and was carrying it home, when lo, a supper together. After that they began wild boar crossed his way. The huntsto converse; when the hermit asked his

man sent an arrow that pierced the guest from what part of the world he boar, but did not prevent bis rushing came, and where are you going now, and upon him, and striking him with his so on. The man had passed through tusks. The bow flew out of his hands distant regions, and seen many curious and both fell dead together. . As it things, and while he was telling them, happened, just at that time there came the hermit suddenly clapped his bands along a wolf. Aha! says the grim creato scare me away from the basket. ture, here is a man, and a deer, and a What is that? said the traveller. Are wild hog, all together; I shall have you making sport of me, after asking meat enough for a long time. It is best, me to relate 'my adventures ? The her. however, to be saving ; so I will begin mit begyed his pardon, and said it was with this leather bow-string; the gnawthat wicked mouse; his audacity is ing of that will do for one meal. He astonishing; I can leave nothing in the was very busy with the string, when it house but he eats it all up. Said the suddenly snapped, and the horn of the traveller, One mouse do all that! There bow springing back struck him a killmust be a good many of them, I think. ing blow upon the throat. So he died, True, replied the hermit, my hut is too; and all this came from saving and pretty well stocked with them; but laying up. I have told you the story there is one in particular who beats me that you may know that all such hoardin every effort I make to catch him at his tricks. That puts me in mind,

* These parentheses, or stories within stories, replied the traveller, of what the man

fourth power. They belong to the humor of this said to the woman who sold good sifted old composition; but they becomc, orcasionally, so sesame for that which was unsifted. complicated, that the reader is puzzled in deter

mining their application. Sometimes they seem Aud how was that ? said the hermit.

quite mal à propos, unless they may be regarded as Once upon a time, said the traveller, I designed to show that the wise animals can now lolged with a man in a certain place,

and then say things withoutapurpose, or talk non

sense, as well as men. It is not very casy here to and after we had supped, they spread a

sce the exact point in the mouse's version of the bed for me in a room adjoining that in traveller's story about the sesame, though the which my host slept with his wife. meaning of the comical wolf-parenthesis is pretty

clear. And so we may sy of some parts of mousic's There being but a thin partition of

moralizing in what follows. Very good in itself, reeds between us, I heard the man say, but seeming to have little to do with the story, just before daylight, that he thought quiet satire up»n commossplace experiences, and

unless we may suppose it intended, by Bidpai, as a of inviting a few friends to dinner. So

prosy moral reflections upon them, belonging, as make ready for them, said he to the they do, to the earliest as well as to the latest times.

often occur, sometimes involved to the third or

ing is apt to come to a bad end. Very he did before.* When morning came, well, said the wife, that may be all the other mice gathered round me, true what you say, and I will do my complaining of hunger, and calling me best; there may be in the house enough their only hope; and so I went on, and rice and sesame to make a dinner for they with me, to the usual place from six or seven persons, and in the morning which I was wont to leap at the basket; I will get it ready; so invite whom you but it was all over with me. I tried please. When the morning came, the my best, once and again, but could wife took the sesame, and sifted it, and never reach it. Thus my loss of power spread it in the sun to dry, and told became evident to them, and I heard the boy to keep off the birds and the them saying, Let us abandon him, for dogs. It so happened, however, that, we shall never more get our living when she was very busy, the boy be- through his means; he is not the one came careless, and lo, a dog came we took him for; he has become poor, along and stuck his nose in the meal. and wants a provider like the rest of This made it profane, and unfit for use. us. So they left me, and joined my So she took it to the market, and bar- enemies, and abused me every way, and gained with it for other sesame that told stories about me, and persecuted had never been sisted, measure for me, until I said to myself: Such is the

That was the time-for. I way of the world; brothers, helpers, was standing in the market—when I friends, all fail when money fails. Thus heard one say: There is some secret I found that one who has no money about this woman's proceedings, or she becomes utterly destitute in all things. never would have sold sifted meal for He is like the water which the winterunsisted. Now this is what I said to rains leave stagnant in the waddies; it you before, resumed the traveller, in runs into no stream, it flows to no his talk with the hermit, and that is place; it only sinks lower and lower, what I have to say about this jumping until the dry earth drinks it up. I mouse. You may depend upon it, there found, too, that as one who has no is some mystery about him, some secret friends has no people, and as one who, cause that enables him to perform these has no child has no memorial, so he seats of which you complain. Now, who has no nioney loses all reputation bring me an axe, and I will make a for wisdom; he has no share in this search for his hole, and find out the world ; he is regarded as having but way he does the thing. So the hermit little to expect from the world to procured an axe, which the guest took, come; for let him become poor, and and began his search. It so happened friends and brothers all cut † his acthat at that time, when I heard them quaintance. Like a tree that grows in say this, I was in my other hole. In the desert, plucked on every side, such the one that I usually occupied there is the condition of one who has become had been lying a purse of a hundred destitute, and stands in need of what is dinars—how they came there I never abundantly possessed by others. And knew-and so the guest kept on his


* We see from this how old is the inductive hunt until he came upon the money.

philosophy. This traveller was a true Baconian ; Aha! said he to the hermit, here is the cum hoc propter hoc, or post hoc propter hoc, was his secret of the mothe's performances; this

motto. The dinars were there all the time of the

mouse's jumping; they were an invari:ible concomiis what gives him power to make such

tant--a “co-cause,” or, at least, an “occasion,”leaps ; he never could have done it if and there must be some connection between them it had not been for the dinars; for it is and the constant event with which they coincided.

No other causation was visible; these were the money, you must know, that gives

“hard facts;" and so the traveller's examination strength, and increase of wisdom, and might be called a "crucial experiment;" whilst the ability of all sorts. Now you will see,

fact of the mouse's ceasing to leap verificà it beyond

doubt. after this, if he shall be able to leap as + The Arabic idiom here is precisely the same

with our own.

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