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U.C. 636. trorum, et quod reliquum ex magna parte militum erat, A.C. 218. ratibus Trebiam trajicerent, aut nihil sensere, obstrepente

pluvia ; aut, quia jam moveri præ lassitudine nequibant ac vulneribus, sentire sese dissimularunt: quietisque Pænis, tacito agmine ab Scipione consule exercitus Placentiam est perductus: inde Pado trajectus Cremonam, ne duorum

exercituum hibernis una colonia premeretur. 57. Romam tantus terror ex hac clade perlatus est, ut jam

ad urbem crederent infestis signis hostem venturum; nec quicquam spei aut auxilii esse, quo portis manibusque vim arcerent. • Uno consule ad Ticinum victo, altero ex * Sicilia revocato, duobus consulibus, duobus consularibus 'exercitibus victis, quos alios duces, quas alias legiones

esse, quæ arcessantur.' Ita territis Sempronius consul advenit, ingenti periculo per effusos passim ad prædandum hostium equites, audacia magis', quam consilio aut spe fallendi resistendive, si non falleret, transgressus. Id quod unum maxime in præsentia desiderabatur, comitiis consularibus habitis, in hiberna rediit. Creati consules Cn. Servilius et C. Flaminius.

Ceterum ne hiberna quidem Romanis quieta erant, vagantibus passim Numidis equitibus, et, qua his impeditiora erant?, Celtiberis: Lusitanisque. Omnes igitur clausi undique commeatus erant, nisi

quos
Pado

naves subveherent. Emporium prope Placentiam fuit, et opere magno munitum, et valido firmatum præsidio. Ejus castelli expugnandi spe cum equitibus ac levi armatura profectus Hannibal, quum plurimum in celando inceptos ad effectum spei habuisset, nocte adortus, non fefellit vigiles. Tantus repente clamor est sublatus, ut Placentiæ quoque audiretur. Itaque sub lucem cum equitatu consul aderat, jussis quadrato agmine legionibus sequi. Equestre prælium interim commissum: in quo, quia saucius Hannibal pugna ex

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| Audacia magis, &c.] “Rather the Basques, inhabiting Guipuscoa, through desperation, than with any Biscay, Alava, Navarre, and the plan or hope of escaping detection; country between the Bidassoa and or, in case he should escape, of the Adour. making resistance.”

Emporium ] "A depôt.” Seve2 Qua his impeditiora erant.] ral of those stations subsequently “ And where the ground was too retained this as a proper name: e.g. uneven for these,” (sc. the Numi- the Emporia (now Ampurias) in dians.)

Spain, from which Hannibal began 3 Celtiberis.] The Celtiberians his march. were a mixed race, between the 5 Quum plurimum in celando inCelts and the Iberians. The latter cepto, &c.] “Though he bad bis hold the rank of Aborigines, having best hope of success in concealing been found in Spain by the Phe- his purpose, and made his attack in nicians. Their descendants and re- the night, he did not elude the vigipresentatives at the present day are lance of the guards."

cessit, pavore hostibus injecto, defensum egregie præsi- U. C. 536. dium est. Paucorum inde dierum quiete sumpta,

et vixdum A. C. 218. satis percurato vulnere, ad Victumvias ire pergit oppugnandas. Id emporium a Romanis Gallico bello fuerat munitum. Inde? locum frequentaverant accolæ mixti undique ex finitimis populis ; et tum terror populationum eo plerosque ex agris compulerat. Hujus generis multitudo, fama impigre defensi8 ad Placentiam præsidii accensa, armis arreptis obviam Hannibali procedit. Magis agmina, quam acies', in via concurrerunt; et, quum ex altera parte nihil, præter inconditam turbam, esset, in altera et dux militi, et duci fidens miles, ad triginta quinque millia hominum a paucis fusa. Postero die, deditione facta, præsidium intra moenia accepere: jussique arma tradere quum dicto paruissent', signum repente victoribus datur, ut tanquam vi captam urbem diriperent. Neque ulla, quæ in tali re memorabilis scribentibus videri solet, prætermissa clades est?: adeo omnis libidinis, crudelitatisque, et inhumanæ superbiæ editum in miseros est exemplum. Hæ fuere hibernæ expeditiones Hannibalis.

Haud longi inde temporis, dum intolerabilia frigora 58. erant, quies militi data est: et ad prima ac dubia signa verisprofectus ex hibernis, in Etruriam ducit, eam quoque gentem, sicut Gallos Liguresque, aut vi aut voluntate adjuncturus. Transeuntem Apenninum adeo atrox adorta tempestas est, ut Alpium foditatem* prope superaverit.

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6 Gallico bello.) This must have Chap. lviii. The passage of the been the war of A.U.C. 464. When Apennines, in a less favourable seathe Senones and Boii were defeated son of the year, appears to have been by Dolabella and Æmilius Papus. as disastrous an undertaking for the

Inde.] “ From that time,” or Carthaginian army as that of the possibly," for that reason,” (sc. its Alps. being fortified.)

“Horrebat glacie, saxa inter Lubrica summo 8 Famá impigre defensi &c.] “By

Piniferuni cælo miscens caput, Apenninus:

Condiderat nix alta trabes, et vertice celso the report of the prompt defence of

Canus apex structâ surgebat ad astra the garrison at Placentia."

pruina.(Silius Ital. ix. 741.) 9 Magis agmina, quam acies &c.] It was fortunate for the Romans “They were rather lines of march that so formidable a barrier, just at than lines of battle that met,” &c. that time, after their defeat on the

· Jussique armatradere quum dicto Trebia, stood between them and paruissent.] "And, although they their enemy. After the most obhad obeyed the summons to sur- stinate efforts, Hannibal was comrender their arms.

pelled to return to the plain; a 2 Neque ulla-prætermissa clades respite which gave the Romans time est &c.] “Nor was any severity to raise new levies, and organize all omitted that historians consider their available strength for a fresh worthy of record on such an oc- struggle. casion; to such a degree (so un- 3 Prima ac dubia signa veris.] reservedly) was every form of insult, “ The first undecided (partial) apcruelty, and inhuman oppression in- pearances of Spring." flicted upon” &c.

* Alpium fæditatem &c.] “That

U. C. 636. Vento mixtus imber quum ferretur in ipsa ora, primo, A. C. 218. quia aut arma omittenda erant, aut contra enitentes vortice

intorti affligebantur, constitere : dein, quum jam spiritum includeret nec reciprocare animam sineret, aversi a vento parumper consedere.

Tum vero ingenti sono coelum strepere, et inter horrendos fragores micare ignes: capti auribus et oculis metu omnes torpere. Tandem, effuso imbre, quum eo magis accensa vis venti esset, ipso illo, quo deprehensi erant, loco castra ponere necessarium visum est. Id vero laboris velut de integro initium fuit.

Nam nec explicare quicquam, nec statueres poterant; nec, quod statutum esset, manebat, omnia perscindente vento et rapiente: et mox aqua levata vento, quum super gelida montium juga concreta esset, tantum nivosæ grandinis dejecit, ut, omnibus omissis, procumberent homines, tegminibus suis magis obruti, quam tecti. Tantaque vis frigoris insecuta est, ut, ex illa miserabili hominum jumentorumque strage quum se quisque attollere ac levare vellet, diu nequiret, quia, torpentibus rigore nervis, vix flectere artus poterant. Deinde, ut tandem agitando sese movere ac recepere animos, et raris locis? ignis fieri est coeptus, ad alienam opem quisque inops tendere. Biduum eo loco, velut obsessi, mansere. Multi homines, multa jumenta, elephanti quoque ex his, qui prælio ad Trebiam facto

superfuerant, septem absumpti. 59. Degressus Apennino retro ad Placentiam castra movit,

et ad decem millia progressus consedit. Postero die duodecim millia peditum, quinque equitum adversus hostem ducit. Nec Sempronius consuljam enim redierat ab Roma) detrectavit certamen : atque eo die tria millia passuum 8 inter bina castra fuere. Postero die ingentibus

it almost surpassed the horrors (the With this we may compare a similar inclemency) of the Alps. When description in M. Labaume's history the wind mingled with rain beat of the retreat from Moscow. “Many right against their faces; at first of them,” he writes, “suffering more they halted; because, either their from cold than hunger, forsook all arms must be thrown away, or, while their baggage, to come and lie down struggling forward, they were bent before some large fire; but, at the by the storm, and thrown down.” moment of departure, those wretches

5 Nec explicare quicquam, nec had lost the power to rise, and prestatuere &c.] “They could neither ferred falling into the hands of the un pack (unfold) nor set up any enemy, to making any effort to conthing,” (sc. any tents.)

tinue the march." 6 Ex illa miserabili hominum &c.] 7 Raris locis.] "Here and there." “Of that pitiable scene of prostrate 8 Millia passuum.] Of the meamen and cattle, wh any attempted surement of distances by paces, to rise and stand up, they were for a it may be observed, that a passus long time unable; because, with was really two steps, though apsinews numbed by the cold, they parently but one movement; it was could scarcely bend their limbs.” the distance from the point off which

animis, vario eventu, pugnatum est. Primo concursu adeo U.C. 536. res Romana superior fuit, ut non acie vincerent solum, sed A. C. 218. pulsos hostes in castra persequerentur; mox castra quoque oppugnarent. Hannibal, paucis propugnatoribus in vallo portisque positis, ceteros confertos in media castra recepit, intentosque signum ad erumpendum spectare jubet. Jam nona ferme diei hora’ erat, quum Romanus, nequicquam fatigato milite, postquam nulla spes erat potiundi castris, signum receptui dedit. Quod ubi Hannibal accepit, laxatamque pugnam et recessum a castris vidit, extemplo equitibus dextra lævaque emissis? in hostem, ipse cum peditum robore mediis castris erupit. Pugna raro ulla magis sæva, et cum utriusque partis pernicie clarior fuisset, si extendi eam dies in longum spatium sivisset. Nox accensum ingentibus animis proelium diremit. Itaque acrior concursus fuit, quam cædes; et, sicut æquata ferme pugna erat, ita clade pari discessum est. Ab neutra parte sexcentis plus peditibus, et dimidium ejus equitum cecidit. Sed major Romanis, quam pro numero, jactura fuit: quia equestris ordinis aliquot, et tribuni militum quinque, et præfecti sociorum tres, sunt interfecti. Secundum eam pugnam Hannibal in Ligures, Sempronius Lucam concessit. Venienti in Ligures: Hannibali per insidias intercepti duo quæstores Romani, C. Fulvius et L. Lucretius, cum duobus tribunis militum, et quinque equestris ordinis sena

the foot was raised, to that where perform two different duties. Upon the same foot was set down again; à march, it should be disposed in i. e. about five feet.

such a manner as to scour the coun9 Jam nona ferme diei hora &c.] try, to reconnoitre, and to pursue: in The military movements, detailed in action, on the contrary, the most this chapter, may be illustrated by efficient service it is capable of perobserving, that the Carthaginian forming, is charging suddenly and troops, weakened and discouraged in a mass upon the weak points and by the hardships described in the breaches of an enemy's line. From preceding, were unable to resist the the distinction between these two Romans, who had enjoyed some rest; duties arose the difference between and, that Hannibal had a twofold light and heavy cavalry. object in delaying an engagement 3 Accensum ingentibus animis.] till this late hour of the day; first, “ Animated by strong emotions." to fatigue the Romans; and second- 4 Lucam, on the Auser (Sterchio), ly, to prevent them, in the event of now Lucca. their success, from immediately fol. 5 Venienti in Ligures &c.] “There lowing up their advantage.

were surrendered to Hannibal, on i Laxatamque pugnam.]

“ The his arrival among the Ligurians, slackening (or, falling off) of the two Roman Quæstors treacherously assault.” The metaphor is from a arrested, C. F. and L. L., with two pressure or ligature strained to a high military tribunes, and five of the degree of tension.

equestrian order, principally sons of 2 Equitibus dextra lævaque emis- senators, in order to coufirm his sis.] It is observed by military au- belief of the sincerity of their (the thorities, that cavalry is intended to Ligurians') friendship and alliance.”

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U.C. 536. torum ferme liberis, quo magis ratam fore cum his pacem A.C. 218. societatemque crederet, traduntur. 60. Dum hæc in Italia geruntur, Cn. Cornelius Scipio, in

Hispaniam cum classe et exercitu missus, quum, ab ostio Rhodani profectus, Pyrenæosque montes circumvectus, Emporiiso appulisset classem, exposito ibi exercitu, orsus a Lacetanis, omnem oram usque ad Iberum flumen, partim renovandis societatibus, partim novis instituendis, Romanæ ditionis fecit. Inde conciliataclementiæ fama, non ad maritimos modo populos, sed, in mediterraneis quoque ac montanis, ad ferociores jam gentes valuit: nec pax modo apud eos, sed societas etiam armorum, parata est: validæque aliquot auxiliorum cohortes ex iis conscriptæ sunt. Hannonis cis Iberum provincia erat: eum reliquerat Hannibal ad regionis ejus præsidium. Itaque prius, quam alienarentur omnia, obviam eundum ratus, castris in conspectu hostium positis, in aciem eduxit. Nec Romano differendum certamen visum: quippe qui sciret', cum Hannone et Hasdrubale sibi dimicandum esse; malletque adversus singulos separatim, quam adversus duos simul, rem gerere. Nec magni certaminis. ea dimicatio fuit. Sex millia hostium cæsa, duo capta cum præsidio castrorum : nam et castra expugnata sunt, atque ipse dux cum aliquot principibus capiuntur?: et Scissis, propinquum castris oppidum, expugnatur.

Ceterum præda oppidi parvi pretii rerum fuit; suppellex barbarica', ac vilium mancipiorum. Castra militem ditavere; non ejus modo exercitus, qui victus erat, sed et ejus, qui cum Hannibale in Italia militabat, omnibus fere caris rebus“, ne gravia impedimenta

ferentibus essent, citra Pyrenæum relictis. 61. Priusquam certa hujusó cladis fama accideret, transgressus

6 Emporiis. See chap. 57, note. structed; suppellex being in apposition Lacetanis, in Catalonia.

to præda; and mancipiorum to 7 Inde conciliatá. ] Having rerum. sc. “The plunder, however, thereby acquired a character for, consisted of things of little value: &c. valint, exercised an influence." foreign furniture and (a booty of)

8 Itaque priusobviam eundum worthless slaves.” ratus.]“ Deeming it necessary, Omnibus ferè caris rebus &c.] therefore, to interpose before all As almost every thing of value beshould be estranged.”

longing not only to the army just ? Quippe qui sciret.] “ Knowing defeated, but to that also &c. had as he did.

been left south of the Pyrenees, lest Nec magni certaminis &c.] the baggage might be an incumbrance “ But that was not a contest of much to carry.” obstinacy.”

5 Priusquam certa hujus &c.) 2 Ipse dux, &c. capiuntur.] Ob- “ Hasdrubal having crossed the serve the idiom; dux cum al. princi- Ebro with 8000 infantry and 1000 pibus, being equivalent to a nom. cavalry, before any authentic intelplur.

ligence of this loss could reach him; 3 Suppellex barbarica &c.) This under the impression that he should sentence also is very peculiarly con- arrive (tanquam occursurus).

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