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that knowledge of the rules referred to will be rigorously exacted from boys who use this book. The pages on the syntax of the compound sentence which have been added to the last edition of the Latin Primer have enabled me to adopt that as my chief book of reference. I have added in many cases the references to Roby's 'Latin Grammar for Schools,' which I hope may be useful to teachers if not to boys. It will be found that the references to the grammar become rather less frequent as the book proceeds, and I have not invariably repeated them when the same point occurs many times.

I have called attention where I could to peculiarities in Latin style and idiom, as writing for boys who are probably called upon to do prose composition as well as translation.

I have to acknowledge obligations throughout to Mr. W. W. Capes, whose edition of the 21st and 22nd books I have had always before me.

A Vocabulary has now been added to the book, and several inadvertences and misprints corrected. Probably however some still remain, and it can hardly be hoped that there are no omissions in the Vocabulary If anyone who uses the book will communicate such as he notices to the publishers, he will much oblige the Author.

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This book treats of the history of Rome from 219 to 217 B.C., rather more than two years. At that time Rome was mistress of “Italy,” by which name we understand, not the whole of modern Italy, but that part of it which lies south of a line drawn from the river Macra on the west, to the Rubicon north of Ariminum. North of this line was Gallia Cisalpina, and over some of the tribes of Gauls who inhabited this country Rome had lately established a supremacy, to be maintained chiefly by means of the colonies of Placentia and Cremona. Besides this Rome had dominion over Sicily, which had been won in the First Punic War (264–241 B.c.), and had been constituted a province. She had also in her possession the coasts of Sardinia and Corsica on the west, and on the east she had established her supremacy in the Adriatic over the coast of Illyricum and the island of Corcyra. She had alliances with the Greek colonies of Massilia (Marseilles) near the mouth of the Rhone, and of Saguntum and Emporiae in Spain. She could bring into the field 700,000 infantry and 70,000 cavalry. Already the foundations of the Roman empire had been laid.

We may ask how it came about that a single city, at first neither larger than other cities of Italy nor more skilled in arts of war or peace, was enabled to extend her power so widely as this ? And this question can partly be answered without going over the whole ground of her history. The answer is to be found first in the physical geography of the country. If we turn to the map of Italy, we shall see that the Apennines run down the whole length of the peninsula, but they do not keep to the centre of it. In the north they approach very near the Adriatic or east coast, and run along parallel to it for about 250 miles, expanding into broad table-land, after which the main range approaches the west coast leaving plains or low hills on the east, and so continues to the southern extremity of the peninsula. We see, then, that wide plains are left in the north on the west of the mountains, and in the south on the east. The former are the plains of Etruria, Latium, and Campania ; the latter, of Lucania and Calabria. But we observe also another point. The west coast of Italy is much more indented with bays, and has many more islands than the east. The rivers too have a longer course, and are therefore larger. Hence the conveniences for navigation are greater. Add to this that the soil, partly from volcanic agencies, is more fertile, and we perceive at once that the population of the great western plains is likely to increase most in wealth and civilization, and to obtain supremacy over the east.

In some countries, as in Greece, a large number of small States have existed for a long time side by side without being absorbed into one another. In Greece this was owing to the fact that they were separated from one another by mountain barriers very difficult to break through. But in Italy this was not the case : the mountains seldom form an impassable barrier, and they do not divide the country into small districts, but leave extensive plains on either side. It was natural then that the various peoples who inhabited it should at some time or another be united under a single head. And that ruling State was likely we have seen to come from the rich country of the west; and in that country no city is more central, or has a more con: venient natural position, than Rome. Situated on the Tiber, the largest navigable river of the peninsula, and being on the border between Etruria and Latium, her position was most favourable for commerce. Founded probably as an outpost to guard Latium from the attacks of the Etruscars, she natu.


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