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per-terreō, -ēre, -ui, -itus, terrify.

per-timescō, -ere, -timuī,

[timēsco, inceptive from timeo], fear greatly, be much afraid of, be alarmed, dread. pertineō, -ēre, -ui, —, [per + teneō], pertain, concern; tend; quō illa ōrātiō pertinet? what is the purpose of their speeches? perturbātus, -a, -um, [part. of perturbō], adj., disturbed, in disorder.

per-turbō, -āre,

-āvī, -ātus, throw into disorder or confusion, disturb. per-veniō, īre, -vēnī, -ventus, arrive at, reach, come, fall. pēs, pedis, [PED, tread], m., foot; pedibus in sententiam ire, vote for. pessumus, see malus. pestilentia, -ae, [pestilēns, pestilential], f., plague. petītiō, -ōnis, [PET, fly], f., candidacy, canvass.

petō, -ere, -īvī or -ii, -ītus, [PEt, fly], seek; attack, aim at, thrust at; ask for, make request for, petition; be a candidate for, canvass for; pursue after, strive to obtain, look for.

Petrēius, -ī, m., a Roman name;

M. Petrēius, lieutenant of the consul C. Antonius, was in command of the forces arrayed against Catiline in the battle of Pistoria.

Picenum, a district on the east coast of Central Italy. pietās, -ātis, [pius, dutiful], f., piety.

pilum, -i, n., javelin, a Roman

weapon, consisting of a wooden shaft 4 ft. long, fitted with an iron point 2 ft. long; it weighed about 10 lbs.

pingō, -ere, pinxi, pictus, paint;

tabula picta, painting. Pisō, -ōnis, m., name of a Roman family in the Calpurnian gens:

(1) C. Calpurnius Pīsō, proconsul of Gallia Narbonensis, B.C. 66-65, was brought to trial by the Allobroges on a charge of extortion, B.C. 63.

(2) Cn. Calpurnius Pisō plot

ted with Catiline in B.c. 66 to kill the consuls Cotta and Torquatus; but, failing in this, went as quaestor to Hither Spain, where he was soon afterward murdered by his Spanish cavalry. Pistōriēnsis, -e, [Pistōria], Pistorian, of Pistoria, a town in the north of Etruria, near which the battle with Catiline was fought; now Pistoia.

placeō, -ēre, -uī, -itus, with dat., please, be acceptable, satisfy, content; impers. with inf., it pleases, one proposes, one thinks best.

petulantia, -ae, [petulāns, for- placidē, [placidus, gentle], adv.,

ward], f., wantonness.

pexus, -a, -um, [part. of pectō, comb], adj., well-combed.

mildly, gently.

plānitiēs, -ēī, [plānus, level], f.,

level ground, plain.

Pīcēnus, -a, -um, adj., Picene, of Plautius, -a, name of a Roman

gens; Plautius, -a, -um, adj., Plautian; lex Plautia dē vī, a law proposed by M. Plautius Silvānus, tribune of the plebs in B.C. 89, directed against disturbers of the public peace. plēbs, plēbis, and plēbēs, -ēl, [PLE, fill], f., common people, commons, plebeians, plebs, populace.

plerumque, [acc. n. of plērusque], adv., generally, for the most part.

plērusque, -aque, -umque, [plērus, very many], adj., usually pl., most, for the most part; as noun, the most of, the greater part of.

plūrumum, see multum. plūrumus, see multus. plūs, see multum and multus. poena, -ae, [Towń, penalty], f., punishment, penalty; poenās dare, suffer punishment, be punished.

pollēns, -entis, [part. of polleō, be strong], adj., strong, powerful.

polliceor, -ērī, -itus sum, [por for prō + liceor, bid], offer, promise, make promises. pollicitor, -ārī, -ātus sum, [freq.

from polliceor], promise. polluō, -ere, -ui, -ūtus, [por for prō + luō, loose], defile, pollute, stain, desecrate.

(2) Q. Pompeius Rūfus, praetor in B.C. 63, was sent to Capua to aid in suppressing the conspiracy. Pomptīnus, -ī, m., C. Pomptīnus, praetor together with L. Valerius Flaccus, arrested Volturcius and the envoys of the Allobroges, and brought them before Cicero.

pōnō, -ere, posui, positus, place, put, station.

pōns, pontis, m., bridge. pontificātus, -ūs, [pontifex, pon

tifex, high-priest], m., office of pontifex, pontificate. populāris, -e, [populus], adj., of the people; devoted to the people, democratic; as noun, populāris, -is, m., associate, accomplice.

populus, -ī, [PLO, fill], m., people, nation.

Porcius, -a, name of a plebeian

gens; see Catō and Laeca. Porcius, -a, -um, adj., Porcian, of a Porcius; lēx Porcia dē provocatiōne, (B.c. 197), a law of the tribune P. Porcius Laeca, forbidding a magistrate to scourge or put to death any Roman citizen who appealed to the people.

porro, [PRO, before], adv., further; porro autem, while on the other hand.

Pompēius, -a, name of a plebeian | portātiō, -ōnis, [portō], f., carrying, conveyance, transportation.


(1) Cn. Pompeius Māgnus, Pompey, the triumvir, was occupied in settling affairs in the far East at the time of the Catilinarian conspiracy.

portendo, -ere, -tendi, -tentus, [por for pro+tendō], foretell, predict, prophesy. portentum, -1, [part. of portendō], n., omen, portent.

portō, -āre, -āvi, -ātus, bear, carry, convey, transport. possessiō, -ōnis, [por for prō + SED, sit], f., possessions, estates, property.

possideō, -ēre, -sēdī, -sessus, [por for prō + sedeō], have possession, possess, hold. possum, posse, potui, - [potis, able + sum], be able, can, be possible, have power; be strong, be powerful, be effective, accomplish.

post, [ros, behind], adv., behind;

post esse, be put behind one, be forgotten; afterwards, after, later.

post, [adv., post], prep. with acc., of place, behind; of time, after, since.

post-ea, adv., after this, hereafter, subsequently; postea quam, after.

able], become master of, obtain control of.

potius, [potis, able], adv., comp.,

rather, by preference.

pōtō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus, [pōtus from Po, drink], drink, tipple, be intemperate.

prae, prep. with abl., before, in comparison with.

prae- in composition, before, very, in advance of, at the head of. prae-acutus, -a, -um, [acutus, part. of acuō, sharpen], adj., with sharp end, pointed. praebeō, -ēre, -ui, -itus, [prae+ habeō], furnish, provide, se


praeceps,-cipitis, [prae+caput], adj., headlong; rash, reckless, desperate.

praeceptum, -1, [part. of praecipio], n., directions, instructions, order.

post-quam, conj., with indic., praecipiō, -ere, -cēpī, -ceptus,


postrēmō, [abl. of postrēmus],

adv., at last, in conclusion, finally, in fine, in short, in a word.

postrēmus, -a, -um, [superl. of posterus, next], adj., last, lowest; n. pl. as noun, the last or latest events.

postulō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus, ask,

demand, require, request. potēns, -entis, [part. of possum],

adj., powerful, influential. potentia, -ae, [potēns], f., power; political power, authority, inAuence.

potestas, -ātis, [potis, able], f., power, authority; opportunity.

potior, īrī, -ītus sum, [potis,

[prae+capio], instruct, enjoin, direct, bid.

prae-clārus, -a, -um, adj., most

brilliant, splendid, magnificent, remarkable, illustrious, most glorious, most noble. praeda, -ae, [prae+HED, seize], f., booty, spoils, plunder. prae-dicō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus, [dicō, proclaim], assert, declare. prae-dicō, -ere, -dixi, -dictus, foretell, predict.

praeditus, -a, -um, [prae + datus], adj., gifted, endowed, possessed.

praedium, -1, [prae+HED, seize],

n., estate.

praefectūra, -ae, [praefectus], f., prefecture, a city governed by a prefect, see praefectus.

praefectus, -1, [part. of praeficio, place in authority over], m., prefect, either (1) a Roman governor of an allied city, or (2) a captain in command of the auxiliary troops of a Roman army. prae-ferō, -ferre, -tulī, -lātus,

with acc. and dat., prefer. prae-mittō, -ere, -mīsī, -missus, send forward, dispatch in ad


praemium, -1, [prae+EM, take],

n., reward, recompense, prize. prae-scrībō, -ere, -scrīpsī, -scriptus, order, prescribe, direct. praesēns, -entis, [part. of praesum], adj., present; in praesēns, for the time being.

praeter- in composition, past, by, beyond, besides. praeter-ea, adv., in addition to this, besides, moreover. praeter-eō, -īre, -ii, -itus, pass by.

praeter-mittō, -ere, -mīsī, -mis

sus, omit, pass over, overlook. praetor, -ōris, [for unused praeitor from prae + 1, go], m., praetor, title of a number of Roman magistrates who administered justice; in B.C. 63 there were eight praetors; after their year of office they were sent as propraetors to govern a foreign province; prō praetōre, vested with the powers of a praetor or governor.

praesentia, -ae, [praesēns], f., praetorius, -a, -um, [praetor],

[blocks in formation]

adj., of a praetor; cohors praetoria, bodyguard of the general (originally praetor). praetura, -ae, [prae+1, go], f., office of praetor, praetorship. prāvus, -a, -um, adj., depraved,

perverse, vicious.

premō, -ere, pressī, pressus, press down, weigh down, overwhelm.

pretium, -ī, [PRA, sell], n., price;

bribe; operae pretium est, it is worth while.

prīdem, [PRI, before], adv., long; iam pridem, long ago, long


prīdiē, [PRI, before+diēs], adv., the day before.

praeter, [comp. of prae], adv. prīmō, [abl. n. of prīmus], adv.,

command of, govern.

and prep., past:

(1) As adv., except, save. (2) As prep. with acc., past, beyond; in addition to; except, besides.

at first.

prīmum, see prius. prīmus, see prior.

princeps, -cipis, [prīmus + CAP, take], adj., foremost, as noun,

princeps, cipis, m., chief, leader.

principium, -1, [princeps], n.,

beginning, commencement. prior, -us, gen., -ōris, [PRI, before], adj., comp., former; priōre nocte, night before last; superl., prīmus, -a, -um, the first, first, foremost, front; of the first importance; in prīmīs, especially, (among the foremost, 56, 13). pristinus, -a, -um, [for unused prius-tinus], adj., former, old


prius, [n. sing. of prior], adv., comp., before, sooner, first; prius quam, before, until; superl., primum, [acc. n. of prīmus], adv., first, in the first place, for the first time; quam primum, as soon as possible; ubi primum, as soon as. prīvātim, [prīvātus], adj., individually, privately, in a private capacity; from individuals.

privātus, -a, -um, [part. of prīvō], adj., personal, individual, private, unofficial; as noun, prīvātus, -ī, m., private citizen.

prīvīgnus, -ī, [prīvus, one each

+GEN, beget], m., step-son. prīvō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus, [prīvus,

one each], with abl., deprive of. pro, prep. with abl., of place, in front of, before; of substitution, in place of, instead of, for; pro praetore, vested with the powers of a praetor; of equivalence, as, equivalent to; prō certō habēre, be assured; pro certo credere, positively

believe; of defence, in behalf of, for; of proportion, in proportion to, considering, in view of, in comparison with, in accordance with, on account of. prō- and old prōd-in composition,

forth, forwards, before, for. prō, interj., with acc., O! Oh! probitās, -ātis, [probus], f., honesty, integrity.

probō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus, [probus], approve of.

probrum, -ī, n., shame, disgrace; disgraceful behavior; shameful life.

probus, -a, -um, adj., good, ser

viceable; virtuous.

procāx, -ācis, [PREC, pray], adj., bold, pert. prō-cēdō, -ere, -cessi, -cessus, go forth; advance, proceed, progress, succeed. procul, [prō + CEL, drive], adv., far, afar; apart, aloof. prōcūrātiō, -ōnis, [prō-cūrō, care for], f., charge, management. prōdigium, -1, [prōd + AG, say], n., omen, prodigy. prō-dō, -ere, -didī, -ditus, disclose; betray, break.

proelium, -ī, n., battle, engage


profānus, -a, -um, [prō + fā

num], adj., not sacred, profane.

profecto, [pro + factum], adv.,

surely, assuredly, certainly, by all means. proficiscor, -i, profectus sum, [pro facio], set out, start, depart, proceed. profiteor, -ērī, -fessus sum, [prō + fateor], announce one's self as a candidate.

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