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Corpus, a body.
Děcus, honour.
Děděcus, disgrace.
Făcinus, a great action.
Fonus, usury.

Exc. 1. The following neuters have ĕris :

Acus, chaff
Fúnus, a funeral.
Fœdus, a covenant.
Gěnus, a kind or kindred.
Glomus, a clew.
Lătus, the side.

Frigus, cold.
Littus, a shore.
Němus, a grove.
Pĕcus, cattle.

Múnus, a gift or office.
Ŏlus, pot-herbs.
Ŏnus, a burden.

Ŏpus, a work.

Tellus, -úris, the earth, or goddess of the earth.

Juventus, -ūtis, youth.

Pondus, a weight.
Rūdus, rubbish.

Thus aceris, funeris, &c. Glomus, a clew, is sometimes masculine, and has glomi, of the second declension. Venus, the goddess of love, and větus, old, an adjective, likewise have ĕris. Exc. 2. The following nouns are feminine, and form the genitive variously : Incus, -ūdis, an anvil.

Pălus, -ūdis, a pool or morass.

Pěcus, (not used,) -ŭdis, a sheep.

Subscus, -údis, a dove-tail.

Es, æris, n. brass, or money.

Fraus, fraudis, f. fraud.

Pěnus, provisions.
Pignus, a pledge.
Stergus, dung.
Tergus, a hide.

Scělus, a crime.
Sidus, a star.

Intercus is properly an adjective, having aqua understood.

Exc. 3. Monosyllables of the neuter gender have ūris in the genitive; as,

Vellus, a fleece of wool.
Viscus, an entrail.
Ulcus, a bile.

Vulnus, a wound.


13. The nouns ending in as and aus are,

Chalybs, -ybis, steel.
Dens, -tis, a tooth.
Fons, -tis, a well.

Sălus, -útis, safety.
Sěnectus, -ūtis, old age.
Servitus, -ūtis, slavery.
Virtus, -ūtis, virtue.
Intercus, -ŭtis, a hydropsy.

Crus, cruris, the leg.
Jus, jūris, law or right; also broth.
Pus, pūris, the corrupt matter of any sore.

Ligus or -ur, a Ligurian, has Ligŭris; lěpus, suis; grus, masc. or fem. a crane, gruis. Edipus, the name of a man, has Edipodis: sometimes it is of the second declension, and has Edpi. The compounds of pus have ŏdis; as, trīpus, masc. a tripod, tripõdis; but lägõpus, -õdis, a kind of bird, or the herb hare's foot, is fem. Names of cities have untis; as, Trăpezus, Trapezuntis ; Opus, Opuntis.


12. Nouns in ys are all borrowed from the Greek, and are for the most part feminine. In the genitive they have sometimes yis or yos; as,

hæc chělys, chelyis, or -yos, a harp; Căpys, Capyis, or -yos, the name of a man; sometimes they have ÿdis, or ydos; as, hæc chlamis, chlamydis, or chlamydos, a soldier's cloak; and sometimes ynis, or ynos; as, Trachys, Trachýnis, or Trachinos, the name of a town.

Adeps, adipis, fatness.
Rudens, -tis, a cable.
Scrobs, scrobis, a ditch.

Rus, rūris, the country.

Thus, thūris, frankincense.

So Mus, mūris, masc. a mouse.

masc. a hare, lěpõris; sus, masc. or fem. a swine,

Substantives ending in the syllable eus are all proper names, and have the genitive in eos; as, Orpheus, Orpheos; Tereus, Tereos. But these nouns are also found in the second declension, where eus is divided into two syllables: thus, Orpheus, gen. Orphei, or sometimes contracted Orphei, and that into Orphî.

Laus, laudis, f. praise.

Præs, prædis, m. or f. a surety.

14. Nouns ending in s with a consonant before it, are feminine; and form the genitive by changing the s into is or tis; as,



trabs, trăbis, a beam; scobs, scobis, saw-dust; hiems, hiemis, winter; gens, gentis, a nation; stips, stīpis, alms; pars, partis, a part; sors, sortis, a lot; mors, -tis, death. Exc. 1. The following nouns are masculine:

Měrops, -õpis, a woodpecker.
Mons, -tis, a mountain.

Pons, -tis, a bridge.

Seps, sěpis, a kind of serpent; but,
Seps, sēpis, a hedge, is fem.

Gryps, gryphis, a griffin.
Hydrops, -õpis, the dropsy.

Exc. 2. The following are either masculine or feminine:

Serpens, -tis, a serpent.

Stirps, stirpis, the root of a tree.
Stirps, an offspring, always fem.

Animans, a living creature, is found in all the genders, but most frequently in the fem. or neuter

Exc. 3. Polysyllables in eps change e into i; as, hæc forceps, forcipis, a pair of tongs; princeps, -ipis, a prince or princess; particeps, -cipis, a partaker; so likewise calebs, cœlibis, an unmarried man or woman. The compounds of caput have cipitis ; as, præceps, præcipitis, headlong; anceps, ancipitis, doubtful; biceps, -cipitis, twoheaded. Auceps, a fowler, has aucupis.

Exc. 4. The following feminines have dis:

Frons, frondis, the leaf of a tree.

Glans, glandis, an acorn.

Juglans, -dis, a walnut.
Lens, lendis, a nit.

So librìpens, libripendis, m. a weigher; nefrens, -dis, m. or f. a grice, or pig; and the compounds of cor; as, concor, concordis, agreeing; discors, disagreeing; vecors, mad, &c. But frons, the forehead, has frontis, fem. and lens, a kind of pulse, lentis, also fem.

Exc. 5. Iens going, and quiens, being able, participles from the verbs eo and queo, with their compounds, have euntis: thus, iens, euntis; quiens, queuntis; rediens, redeuntis; nequiens, nequeuntis; but ambiens, going round, has ambientis.

Exc. 6. Tiryns, a city in Greece, the birth-place of Hercules, has Tirynthis.


15. There is only one noun in t, namely, caput, capitis, the head, neuter. In like manner, its compounds, sinciput, sincipitis, the forehead; and occiput, -itis, the hind-head.


16. Nouns in x are feminine, and in the genitive change a into cis; as, vox, vocis, the voice; lux, lucis, light. So,

Appendix, -icis, an addition;
dim, -icŭla.

Crux, crăcis, a cross.
Fæx, cis, dregs.
Falx, -cis, a scythe.
Fax, -ăcis, a torch.
Filix, -icis, a fern.
Lanx, -cis, a plate.
Lōdix -icis, a sheet.

Měretrix, -icis, a courtesan.
Merx, -cis, merchandise.

Arx, arcis, a castle.
Celex, -ocis, a pinnace.
Cervix, -icis, the neck.
Cicatrix, -icis, a scar.
Cornix, -icis, a crow.
Coturnix, -icis, a quail.
Coxendix, -icis, the hip.

Exc. 1. Polysyllables in ax and ex are masculine; as, thorax, -ācis, a breast-plate; Còrax, -ăcis, a raven. Ex in the genitive is changed into icis; as, pollex, -icis, m. the thumb. So the following nouns, also masculine:

Apex, the tuft or tassel, on the
top of a priest's cap, the cap
itself, or the top of any thing.
Artifex, an artist.
Carnifex, an executioner.
Caudex, the trunk of a tree.
Cimex, a bug.

Vervex, a wedder sheep, has branch cut off.

To these masculines add,

Codex, a book.

Culex, a gnat, a midge.
Frutex, a shrub.
Index, an informer.
Latex, any liquor.

Murex, a shell-fish, purple.
Podex, the breech.

vervēcis; fænisex, a mower of hay, fænisècis; rèsex, m. -ěcis, a vine

Călix, -icis, a cup.

Calyx, -ycis, the bud of a flower.
Coccyx, -ygis, vel -ýcis, a cuckow.
Fornix, -icis, a vault.

Nutrix, -icis, a nurse.
Nux, nucis, a nut.
Pax, -ácis, peace.
Pix, picis, pitch.

Rádix, -icis, a root.

Sălix, -icis, a willow.

Vibix, or -ex, -icis, the mork of a wound.

Fornax, -ácis, a furnace.
Pănax, -ăcis, the herb all-heal.
Climax, -ăcis, a ladder.

Forfex, -icis, a pair of scissors.

Exc. 2. A great many nouns in x are

Pontifex, a chief priest.
Půlex, a flea.

Ramex, a rupture.
Sōrex, a rat.

Calx, -cis, the heel, or the end of any thing; the
goal; but calx, lime, is always fem.

Cortex, -icis, the bark of a tree.
Hystrix, -icis, a porcupine.
Imbrex, -icis, a gutter, or roof tile.

Vertex, the crown of the head.
Vortex, a whirlpool.

But the following polysyllables in ax and ex are feminine:

Hälex, -ēcis, a herring.

Smilax, -ăcis, the herb rope-weed.
Cērex, -icis, a sedge.

Supellex, supellectilis, household furniture.

either masculine or feminine; as,

Obex, -icis, a bolt or bar.
Perdix, -icis, a partridge.
Pumex, -icis, a pumice-stone.
Rumex, -icis, sorrel, an herb.
Sandix, -icis, a purple colour.

Oryx, -ÿcis, a wild goat.

Phoenix, -icis, a bird so called.

Trādux, ŭcis, a graff or off-set of a vine, also


Lynx, cis, an ounce, a beast of very quick sight. Silex, -icis, a flint.
Limax, -ācis, a mail.

Varix, icis, a swoln vein.


Exc. 3. The following nouns depart from the general rule in forming the genitive: Aquilex, -ěgis, a well maker. Conjunx, or ux, -ūgis, a husband or wife. Frux, (not used,) frügis, f. corn. Grex, gregis, m. or f. a flock. Lex, legis, f. a law.

Phalanx, -angis, f. a phalanx.

Remex, -igis, a rower.
Rex, régis, a king.
Nix, nivis, f. snow.
Nox, noctis, f. night.
Senex, senis, (an adj.) old.

Exc. 4. Greek nouns in x, both with respect to gender and declension, are as various as Latin nouas: thus, bombyx, bombīcis, a silk worm, masc. but wh it signifies silk, or the yarn spun by the worm, it is feminine; onyx, masc. or fem. onychis, a precious stone; and so sardonyx; lărynx, laryngis, fem. the top of the wind-pipe; Phryx, Phrygis, a Phrygian; sphinx, -ngis, f. a fabulous hag; strix, -igis, f. a schreech-owl; Styx, -ÿgis, f. a river in hell; Hylax, -etis, the name of a dog; Bibrax, Bibractis, the pame of a town, &c.


The dative singular anciently ended also in e; as, Esuriente leoni ex ore exculpere prædam, To pull the prey out of the mouth of a hungry lion. Lucil. Hæret pede pes, Foot sticks to foot. En. x. 361. for esurienti and pedi.


Exc. 1. The following nouns have the accusative in im: Amussis, f. a mason's rule.

Būris, f. the beam of a plough.

Gummis, f. gum.

Měphitis, f. a damp or strong smell.
Rāvis, f. hoarseness.

Sinapis, f. mustard.

To these add proper names, 1. of cities, and other places; as, Hispălis, Seville, a city in Spain; Syrtis, a dangerons quicksand on the coast of Lybia:-2. of rivers; as, Tiberis, the Tiber, which runs past Rome; Batis, the Guadalquiver, in Spain: so, Alhesis, Arăris, Athis, Liris, &c.-3. of gods; as, Anubis, Apis, Osiris, Serapis, deities of the Egyptians. But these sometimes make the accusative also in in; thus, Syrtim or Syrlin, Tiberim or -in, &c.

Cannabis, f. hemp.
Cucumis, m. a cucumber.
Sitis, f. thirst.

Tussis, f. a cough.
Vis, f. strength.

Exc. 2. Several nouns in is have either em or im; as,
Clavis, f. a key.
Cutis, f. the skin.
Febris, f. a fever.
Navis, f. a ship.

Pelvis, f. a bason.

Puppis, f. the stern of a ship.
Restis, f. a rope.
Sécuris, f. an axe.

Sementis, f. a sowing.
Strigillis, f. a horse-comb.
Turris, f. a tower.

Thus, navem, or navim; puppem, or puppim, &c. The ancients said avim, aurim, ovim, pestim, vallim, vitim, &c. which are not to be imitated.

Exc. 3. Greek Nouns form their accusative variously:

1. Greek nouns, whose genitive increases in is or os impure, that is, with a consonant going before, have the accusative in em or a, as lampas, lampădis, or lampădos, lampădem, or lampăda. In like manner, these three, which have is pure in the genitive, or is, with a vowel before it: Tros, Trois, Troem and Troa, Trojan; heros, a hero; Minos, a king of Crete. The three following have almost always a: Pan, the god of shepherds; æther, the sky; delphin, a dolphin; thus, Pana, æthere, delphina.

2. Masculine Greek nouns in is, which have their genitive in is or os impure, form the accusative in im or in ; sometimes in idem, never ida; as, Păris, Paridis, or Paridos; Parim, or Parin, sometimes Paridem, never Parida. So Daphnis.

3. Feminines in is, increasing_impurely in the genitive, have commonly idem or ida, but rarely im or in; as, Elis, Elidis, or Elidos, Elidem, or Elida; seldom Elim or Elin; a city in Greece. In like manner, feminines in ys, ÿdos, have ÿdem, or ÿda, not ym or yn in the accusative; as, chlamys, idem, or -yda, not chlamyn, a soldier's cloak.

4. But all Greek nouns in is or ys, whether masculine or feminine, having is or os pure in the genitive, form the accusative by changing s of the nominative into m or n; as, mělămorphosis, -eos, or ios, metamorphōsim, or in, a change; Tethys, -yos, or -yis, Tethym, or -yn; the name of a goddess.

5. Nouns ending in the diphthong eus, have the accusative in ea; as, Theseus, Thesea; Tydeus, Tydea.


Exc. 1. Neuters in e, al, and ar, have i, in the ablative; as, sedile, sedili; animal, animali; calcar, calcari. Except proper names; as, Præneste, abl. Præneste,, the name of a town; and the following neuters in ar:

Far, farre, corn.
Hĕpar, -ǎte, the liver.
Jubar, -ăre, a sun-beam.

Nectar, -ăre, drink of the gods.
Par, păre, a match, a pair
Sal, săle, salt.

Exc. 2. Nouns which have im or in in the accusative, have i in the ablative; as, vis, vim, vi: but canăbis, Bætis, and tigris, have e or i.

Nouns which have im or in in the accusative, make their ablative in e or i; as, turris, turre, or turri; but restis, a rope; and cutis, the skin, have e only.

Several nouns which have only em in the accusative, have e or i in the ablative; as, finis, supellex, vectis, pugil, a champion; mūgil or mugilis; so rus, occiput: Also names of towns, when the question is made by ubi; as, habitat Carthagine or Carthagini, he lives at Carthage. So, civis, classis sors, imber, anguis, avis, postis, fustis, amnis, and ignis; but these have oftener e. Canalis has only i The most ancient writers made the ablative of many other nouns in i; as, æstati, cani, lapidi, ovi, &c.

Exc. 3. Adjectives used as substantives, have commonly the same ablative with the adjectives; as, bipennis, -i, a halberd; molāris, -i, a millstone; quadrirēmis, -i, a ship with four banks of oars. So names of months, Aprilis, -i; December, -bri, &c. But rudis, f. a rod given to gladiators when discharged; juvěnis, a young man, have only e; and likewise nouns ending in il, x, ceps, or ns; as,

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Exc. 4. Nouns in ys which have ym in the accusative, make their ablative in ye or y; as, Atys, Atye, or Aty, the name of a man.


1. The nominative plural ends in es, when the noun is either masculine or feminine; as, sermones, rupes.

Nouns in is and es have sometimes in the nominative plural also eis or is ; as, puppes, puppeis, or puppis.

2. Neuters which have e in the ablative singular, have a in the nominative plural; as, capita, itinĕra: but those which have i in the ablative, make ia; as, sedilia, calcaria.

Torrens, a brook.
Vigil, a watchman.


Nouns which in the ablative singular have i only, or e and i together, make the genitive plural in ium; but if the ablative be in e, the genitive plural has um ; as, sedile, sedili, sedilium ; turris, turre, or turri, turrium; caput, capite, capitum.

Exc. 1. Monosyllables in as have ium, though their ablative end in e; as, mas, a male, măre, marium; vas, a surety, vădium: but polysyllables have rather um ; as, civitas, a state or city, civitatum, and sometimes civitatium.

Exc. 2. Nouns in es and is, which do not increase in the genitive singular, have also ium; as, hostis, an enemy, hostium. So likewise nouns ending in two consonants; as, gens, a nation, gentium; urbs, a city, urbium.

Caro, carnis, f. flesh.
Cohors, -tis, f. a company.
Cor, cordis, n. the heart.

But the following have um; parens, vātes, pānis, jūvěnis, and cănis.

Exc. 3. The following nouns form the ablative plural in ium, though they have e only in the ablative singular:

Cos, cotis, f. a hone or whetstone.
Dos, dotis, f. a dowry.
Faux, faucis, f. the jaws.
Glis, gliris, m. a rat.

Lar, laris, m. a household god.
Linter, -tris, m. or f. a little boat.

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Thus Samnitium, lintrium, litium, &c. Also the compounds of uncia and as; as, septunx, seven ounces, septuncium; bcs, eight ounces, bessium. Bos, an ox or cow, has boum; in the dative, bōbus or būbus.


Greek nouns have generally um; as, Măcědo, a Macedonian; Arabs, an Arabian; Æthiops, an Ethiopian; Monoceros, an unicorn; Lynx, a beast so called; Thrax, a Thracian; Macedonum, Arăbum, Ethiopum, Monocerotum, Lyncum, Thracum. But those which have a or sis in the nominative singular, sometimes form the genitive plural in on ; as, Epigramma, epigrammătum, or epigrammatón, an epigram; metamorphosis, -ium, or -eón.

OBS 1. Nouns which want the singular, form the genitive plural as if they were complete; thus, mānes, m. souls departed, manium; cœlītes, m. inhabitants of heaven, cœlitum; because they would have had in the sing. manis, or manes and cæles. But names of feasts often vary their declension; as, Saturnalia, the feasts of Saturn, Saturnalium, and Saturnaliorum. So Bacchanalia, Compitalia, Terminalia, &c.

OBS. 2. Nouns which have ium in the genitive plural, are, by the poets, often contracted into um, as, nocentûm for nocentium; and sometimes, to increase the number of syllables, a letter is inserted; as, cœlituum for cœlitum. The former of these is said to be done by the figure Syncope; and the latter by Epenthesis.


Exc. 1. Greek nouns in a have commonly tis instead of tibus; as, poēma, a poem, poematis, rather than poematibus, from the old nominative poemătum of the second declension.

Exc. 2. The poets sometimes form the dative plural of Greek nouns in si, or when the next word begins with a vowel, in sin; as, Troăsi or Troăsin, for Troădibus, from Troas, Troadis, a Trojan woman.


Exc. 1. Nouns which have ium in the genitive plural make their accusative plural in es, eis, or is; as, partes, partium, acc. partes, parteis, or partis.

Exc. 2. If the accusative singular end in a, the accusative plural also ends in as ; as, lampas, lampadem, or lampada, lampades, or lampadas. So Tros, Troas ; heros, heroas; Ethiops, Ethiopas, &c.


Lampas, a lamp, f. lampădis, or -ădos ; -ădi; ădem, or -ăda; -as; -ăde : Plural, -ades ; -ădum; -ădibus ; -ădes, or -ădas; -ădes; -adibus.

Troas, f. Troădis, or -ādos; -i; em or a; as; e: Pl. Troades, -um ; ìbus si or sin ; es or as; es; ìbus.

Tros, m. Trois; Troi; Troem or a; Tros; Troe, &c.
Phillis, f. Phillidis, or -dos; di; dem, or da; i or is; de.
Paris, m. Paridis, or -dos; di; dem, Parim, or in; i; de.

Chlamys, f. Chlamydis, or -ýdos ; ÿdi ; ÿdem, or ÿda; ys; ÿde ; &c.
Căpys, m. Capyis, or -yos; yi; ym or yn; y; ye or y.
Mětamorphosis, f. -is or -eos ; i; em or in ; i ; i,
Orpheus, m. -eos; ei or ei; ea; eu; abl. eo; of the second declension.
Dido, f. Didûs or Didōnis; Dido or Didoni, &c.


Nouns of the fourth declension end in us and u.

Nouns in us are masculine; nouns in u are neuter, and indeclinable in the singular number.

The terminations of the cases are: nom. sing. us; gen. ûs; dat. ui; acc. um ; voc. like the nom. Nom. acc. voc, plur. us or ua; gen. uum; dat. and abl. ibus. See examples, currus, a chariot; and cornu, a horn, page 10.

Exc. 1. The following nouns are feminine:

Acus, a needle.

Anus, an old woman.

Domus, a house.

Ficus, a fig.

Mănus, the hand.

Pěnus, a store-house.

Penus and specus are sometimes masc. Ficus, penus, and domus, with several others, are also of the second declension. Capricornus, m. the sign Capricorn, although from cornu, is always of the second declension, and so are the compounds of manus; unìmănus, having one hand; centìmănus, &c. adjectives. Domus is but partly of the second declension; thus,

Domus, a house, feminine.


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Nom. domus,

Gen. domûs, or -mi,

Dat. domui, or -mo,

Acc. domum,

Voc. domus,

Abl. domo;

Porticus, a gallery.
Spĕcus, a den.
Tribus, a tribe.

Nom. domus,

Gen. domorum, or -uum,

Dat. domibus,

Acc. domos, or -us,

Voc. domus,
Abl. domibus.

Note. Domus, in the genitive signifies, of a house; and domi, at home, or of home; as, memineris domi. Terent. iv. 7. 45.

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