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THE FIRST FIVE BOOKS.
THE TWENTY-FIRST AND TWENTY-SECOND
CHIEFLY FROM THE TEXT OF ALSCHEFSKI.
ENGLISH NOTES FOR SCHOOLS AND COLLEGES.
BY J. L. LINCOLN,
PROFESSOR OF LATIN IN BROWN UNIVERSITY.
WITH AN ACCOMPANYING PLAN OF ROME, AND A MAP OF THE
PASSAGE OF HANNIBAL.
EIGHTEENTH EDITION, REVISED.
D. APPLETON & CO., 443 & 445 BROADWAY.
ENTERED, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1847, by
In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States for the Sorthern District of New York.
THE present edition of a part of the History of Livy, has been undertaken with the hope of supplying a deficiency, which has been for some time experienced by teachers and students in American colleges. The work now in common use, prepared by Mr. Folsom, tnough containing a copious and judicious selection of passages, and exhibiting, especially in its mechanical execution, the well-known taste and accuracy of its editor, yet, from the extreme paucity of the notes, is generally believed to be scarcely suited to the purpose for which it was intended.
In regard to the principle of selection in the present volume, it has been the object of the editor to furnish, in the extracts from the first Five Books, those passages in the writings of Livy which best illustrate the poetic character of the early Roman history; and, by giving the Twenty-first and the Twenty-second Books entire, to present, in connection, a portion of authentic history, which yields to none in the entire work in point of, interest and excellence. These extracts provide, it is believed, an amount of reading in Livy sufficient, for the
purposes of instruction in our colleges; and it was deemed inexpedient to increase unnecessarily the size of the volume.
The text is chiefly that of Alschefski; whose excellent edition,* not yet completed, is understood to mark a new era in the history of the text of Livy, and, in the judgment of distinguished European scholars, will unquestionably attain and long hold the rank of the standard critical edition of Livy. Wherever other readings have been preferred to those of Alschefski, the reasons for the preference are usually given in the Notes.
The Notes have been prepared with chief reference to the grammatical study of the language; to the illustration of its forms, constructions, idioms, of its usages in general, and in particular, of the usage of Livy. Wherever it was possible, it has been thought best, simply to furnish apt references to such grammars and auxiliary works as were supposed to be in the hands of the student; but important difficulties, which required more ample means of investigation and study, have been more fully discussed and explained. It is hoped that the Notes will be also found to embrace all necessary information relating to history, geography, and antiqui ties, together with useful references to such standard works as are accessible to the student. A list of such works as are commonly referred to, may be found on the page immediately preceding the Notes. It has
* Titi Livii Rerum Romanarum ab urbe condita libri ad codicum manu scriptorum fidem emendati ab C. F. S. Alschefski, Vol. i. ii., primæ decadis part. prior. et part. alteram cont. 8 maj., Berolini, 1841, 43. Dümmler Vol. iii. Libros Livianos, xxi. xxii. xxiii., cont. 8 maj. ibid. 1846.—With the same title. Ps. i.-iv. (Schul-Ausgabe) 8 maj. ibid. 1843.
been the aim of the editor to furnish such ́assistance in the Notes as is needful to facilitate the progress of the diligent student; but above all things to avoid giving that pernicious help, whether in the form of indiscriminate translation, or of unnecessary explanation, which precludes all effort on the part of the pupil, and cripples his mental energies, by fostering habits of dependence and inaction.
The editions which have been consulted, besides Drakenborch's, have been those of Crevier, Ruperti, Bekker and Raschig, Twiss, Dymock by W. M. Gunn, Fabri, and Alschefski. In the preparation of the notes upon the Twenty-first and Twenty-second Books, the editor has been greatly indebted to the excellent edition of Fabri and the larger edition of Alschefski; but in the remainder, he is not aware that he has derived important aid from previous editions. In all cases he has aimed to acknowledge whatever direct assistance he has gained from the labors of others.
The Geographical Index has been partly translated from the edition of Fabri, and partly prepared from general sources. The Index to the Notes has been made with much care, and it is hoped, will be found useful.
The Plan of Rome, which accompanies the volume, has been taken from Professor W. A. Becker's recent work on Roman Antiquities; an account of the Map will be found on the page which faces it.
The Editor avails himself of this occasion to acknowledge his obligations to his friends who have encouraged