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83. Glorious victory of the British, ·

84. Pursuit of Holkar to Furruckabad,

88

85. Surprising night-march of the British, and defeat of Holkar,

89

86. Siege and capture of Dieg,

90

87. Siege and unsuccessful assault of Bhurtpore,

91

88. Repeated assaults on Bhurtpore, which are repulsed,

92

89. Final defeat of the British,

93

90. Reasons on both sides for an accommodation with the Rajah of Bhurtpore, 94

91. Peace with the Rajah of Bhurtpore,

95

92. Holkar joins Scindiah, being expelled from Bhurtpore,

96

93. Operations in the Cuttack, Bundelcund, and against Meer Khan,

97

94. Operations against Scindiah, who sues for peace; and Lord Wellesley

returns to England,

98

95. Second administration and death of Lord Cornwallis. Arrival of Sir G.

Barlow,

99

96. Terms of peace with Scindiah and Holkar,

100

97. Review of Lord Wellesley's administration,

101

98. Vast extension he gave to the British empire in the East,

99. Return of Wellington to Europe,

104

100. Proportion of Europeans to Asiatics in the armies of Alexander the Great, 105

107
102. Analogy between the British empire in India and Napoleon's in Europe, 108

103. Their essential point of difference,

ib.

104. Reflections on the rise of the British power in India,

109

105. Causes of this extraordinary progress,

111

106. It was owing to the union of democratic energy with aristocratic foresight, 112

107. Causes of this extraordinary combination,

113

108. Causes which will eventually subvert our Eastern empire,

114

109. Great and lasting benefits it has already produced in human affairs, 115

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130

12. Import of these Orders, .

131

13. Milan Decree, 17th December 1807, issued by Napoleon,

132

14. Arguments in parliament against the Orders in Council,

ib,

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15. Special injury inflicted by them on America,

133

16. Their general injustice,

134

17. Their reaction upon England herself,

135

18. Reply of the supporters of the Orders in both Houses,

136

Able note of Lord Howick this subject to the Danish minister,

19 The terms of the Berlin decree,

138

20. The French possessed of no blockading force,

ib.

21. Acquiescence of the neutrals in tbe Berlin decree,

139

22. Napoleon's policy in his decrees,

140

23. Reflections on this debate, and on the justice of the Orders in Council,. 141

24. Which party was the aggressor ?

142

25. Comparative blame attaching to each party,

143

26. Reflections on the policy of the Orders in Council,

144

27. Jesuit's Bark Bill in England,

145

28. Vast ultimate effects of the Continental System,

146

29. Introduction of the system of licenses,

147

30. Evasion of the decrees on both sides by the vast extension of this system, 148

31. Great effects of this system in opening up new markets for British industry, 150

32. Universal joy at Napoleon's return to Paris,

151

33. Slavish adulation of the orators in the Senate and Chamber of Deputies, 152

34. Great fête in honour of the Grand Army,

153

35. Suppression of the French Tribunate,

154

36. Reasons of Napoleon for that step,

155

37. Slavish submission with which this change was received in France, 156

38. Servile adulation with which the change was received in the Tribunate, 157

39. Establishment of a censorship of the press,

159

40. Entire prostration of literature and the press,

ib.

Identity of the imperial despotism of Napoleon, and the democratic

tyranny of America,

41. Banishment of Madame de Stael,

161

42. And of Madame Recamier,

163

43. The judges are rendered removable at pleasure,

164

44. Severe decrees against any connivance at English commerce,

ib.

45. Universal thirst for public employment in France,

165

46. Rapid progress of the system of centralisation in France,

167

47. Centralisation of all power in the imperial government,

ib.

48. Policy of the Emperor as regards this,

169

49. He re-establishes titles of honour. Principles on which this was founded, 170

50. Re-establishment of hereditary titles of honour,

172

51. Speeches on the subject in the legislative body,

173

52. Endowment of the new peers with revenues from foreign states,

174

Address of the Senate to the Emperor on the subject,

53. System of fusion of the ancient and modern noblesse which Napoleon

pursued,

51. Readiness with which the old nobles entered into these views, .

178

55. Great discontent of the French republicans at the institution of titles of

honour,

179

56. Objections felt against it by the republican party,

180

57. Napoleon's reasons for disregarding these complaints,

181

58. Rapid progress of court etiquette at Paris,

ib.

59. Advantages of the imperial government,

182

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60. Great internal prosperity of France under the empire, .

183

61. Great effect of the foreign plunder and contributions on the industry of

France. Great canals set on foot,

184

Its revenues from 1808 to 1813, .

62. Striking account of the public works of France by the minister of the

interior,

186

63. Manufacturing and industrial works, &c.,

187

64. Great works in Paris and elsewhere,

188

65. General delirium which it produced,

189

66. Finances of France under the empire,

ib.

Budget of 1808, .

note, 190

67. Despotic character of the new law of high treason,

192

68. History of the French prisons since the Revolution,

193

69. State prisons under Napoleon,

194

70. Trivial offences for which persons were confined in these state prisons, 195

71. Cardinal Pacca's account of them,

ib.

72. Extraordinary assemblage of persons in these state prisons,

196

73. Universal extent of Napoleon's power, and great aggravation this was of his

persecutions,

197

74. Universal and slavish obedience to his authority,

199

Enormous destruction of human life under his foreign wars and the con-

scription, .

75. Excessive rigour of the conscription laws,

200

76. Terrible punishments denounced against the refractory,

201

77. Imperial system of education. Ecclesiastical schools,

ib.

78. Constitution of the imperial university, .

202

79. Lyceums or military academies. Their regulations and great importance, 203

80. And entire subjection to the Emperor's will,

204

81. Rapid transition from republican to despotic ideas,

206

82. Remarkable difference between the English and French Revolutions in

this respect,

207

83. Universal alacrity with which despotism was hailed in France, .

ib.

84. Its causes. Greater violence and injustice of the French convulsion, 208

85. But this alone will not explain the difference,

209

86. It was not the love of freedom, but the desire of elevation, which con-

vulsed France,

87. Selfishness generally prevailing was the cause of this,

88. The principles of freedom never were attended to in the French Revolution, 211

89. It was nothing but a vehement struggle for power,

212

90. General corruption of public opinion which the French Revolution pro-

duced,

213

91. The democratic party when in power support every abuse, because they

profit by it,

214

92. Rapid growth of centralisation in this state of public feeling,

ib.

93. Debasing effects of centralisation when generally established,

215

Striking opinion of M. de Tocqueville on this subject,

note, 216

94. It was the republicans who destroyed freedom in France,

217

95. Ability with which Napoleon took advantage of these circumstances to
establish despotic power, .

ib.

96. But this, however great an evil, was unavoidable in the state in which

France was on the termination of the Revolution,

218

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1. General suffering and dismay produced in Russia by the treaty of Tilsit, 222

2. General feeling of despondence which prevailed in Great Britain,

224

3. Constitution for the Grand-duchy of Warsaw,

225

4. Constitution of the kingdom of Westphalia,

226

5. Oppressive military government of the Confederation of the Rhine and

Hanse Towns,

227

6. Excessive rigour of the treatment which Prussia experienced,

228

7. Fresh requisitions imposed on Prussia, and limitation of its regular forces, 230

8. Wise internal measures adopted by the Prussian government,

231

9. First measures of the King of Prussia to restore the public fortunes, 232

10. Accession of Baron Stein to the ministry. His firm character and admir-

able measures,

233

11. Admirable reforms which he introduced in Prussia,

234

12. Various causes of distress in Prussia. Stein is exiled,

235

13. History, character, and great reforms of Scharnhorst,

236

14. His great reforms and admirable system in the army,

237

15. Rise and progress of the Tugendbund and secret societies,

238

16. Generals and officers who secretly joined the Tugendbund,

240

17. Situation, statistics, and power of Austria,

241

18. She joins the Continental System, and obtains the evacuation of Braunau, 242

Resources and statistics of the Austrian empire,

19. Affairs of Sweden. The Swedes are shut up in Stralsund,

243

20. Siege of Stralsund,

244

21. Its fall,

245

22. Capture of the islands of Danholm and Rugen,

246

23. Reasons which led to the Copenhagen expedition,

ib.

24. Uniform hostility of Denmark to Great Britain,.

248

25. Resolution of the British cabinet,

ib.

26. Equipment and departure of the expedition,

249

27. Ineffectual negotiation with Denmark,

251

28. Siege of Copenhagen. Action of Sir Arthur Wellesley, .

252

Proclamation of Lord Cathcart on landing in Zealand,

note, ib.

Answer of the Prince Royal of Denmark,

note, 253

29. Bombardment of Copenhagen,

254

30. Surrender of the fleet, which is equipped and brought to England,

255

31. Great sensation excited in Europe by this expedition,

256

32. Justification of it soon afforded by Napoleon,

ib.

33. General feeling in England on the subject,

258

34. Arguments in parliament against the Copenhagen expedition,

259

35. Argument against its necessity,

260

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36. Alleged priority of the determination to despoil Denmark to the treaty of

Tilsit,

261

37. Inveteracy of Denmark in consequence of the attack on her,

ib.

38. Answer of Lord Wellesley, Lord Castlereagh, and Mr Canning,

262

39. Justification of the expedition afforded by the conduct of Napoleon, 263

40. Ease with which Denmark might have been subjugated by France,

264

41. Value of the Danish fleet to France,

265

42. The expedition not only a justifiable measure, but a wise one,

ib.

43. The secret article of the treaty of Tilsit regarding the Danish fleet after-

wards produced,

266

Napoleon's secret opinion regarding the Copenhagen expedition,

44. Ineffectual mediation of Russia, .

ib.

Secret satisfaction with which it was viewed by Alexander,

note, 268

45. Rupture of that power with England,

269

Concurring statement of the English and French ambassadors on the

causes of the rupture,

note, 270

46. The Russians declare war against Sweden,

271

Russian manifesto,

Declaration by Great Britain,

47. Invasion and conquest of Finland by Russia,

274

48. Denmark enters cordially into the war,

275

49. Affairs of Russia and Turkey,

ib.

50. Alienation of the Turks from the French,

277

Curious secret despatch from Savary at St Petersburg to Napoleon,

note, 278

51. Changes in the constitution of the Italian States,

279

52. Union of Parma and Placentia to France. Great works at Milan. State

of Italy, .

280

53. Encroachments of France on Holland, Germany, and Italy. Occupation

of Rome, and dismemberment of its provinces, .

282

54. Reflections on the imminent hazard to Europe from the treaty of Tilsit, 284

55. Universal empire was now openly aimed at by Russia and France, 286

56. Great importance of the stroke already struck at Napoleon's naval con-

federacy, .

287

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